A carcinoma of the larynx (CL) can develop in any part of the larynx and gradually affect other and finally all the parts. Most larynx carcinomas originate from squamous cells located in the epithelium. Early stage tumors are typically found in the glottis and will later on spread into the supra- and subglottic larynx regions. The treatment should involve an optimal combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. All patients should be strongly advised to quit smoking.
Early stage carcinomas of the larynx usually manifest in persisting and slowly increasing voice hoarseness. The carcinoma gradually impairs laryngeal functions and can also cause inflammatory reactions in the surrounding tissue at a later stage. In the majority of cases, the carcinomas remain localized. However, they can also form metastases in regional as well as distant lymph nodes in up to 40% of patients . Metastases most likely develop in the liver and the lungs. Both the site and the stage of the carcinoma determine the spectrum of possible symptoms. Dysphonia which will gradually develop into aphonia, dysphagia, dyspnea, aspiration, fatigue and general weakness, localized pain, otalgia, halitosis and blood showing in the patient's sputum as well as general cachexia, tissue expectoration and suspicious local tissue development in the neck in advanced carcinoma stages can be noted in the clinical presentation .
Carcinomas of the larynx are strongly connected to certain lifestyle risk factors like smoking and alcohol abuse as well as advanced age (above 60 years) . It is more common in males. The probability to develop a carcinoma of the larynx is sixteen times higher in smokers than in non-smokers  with a significant detrimental memory effect in former smokers . Restarting the smoking habit during or after carcinoma treatment diminishes healing chances and also increases the risk for the development of further carcinomas . Notably, the probability of developing early-stage disease has declined in the past decades . In the case of patients with a drug history, it is most likely that the patients have accumulated further drug-related ailments that turn out to be fatal than carcinomas of the larynx.
Diagnosis must start with a thorough check of the patient's background and lifestyle. The development of a carcinoma of the larynx can also be related to an infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) . A physical exam involving direct laryngoscopy is inevitable. It is highly advisable to perform a biopsy of a potential early-stage tumor. Depending on the location and the development stage of the carcinoma, further tests to be considered are computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, head and neck, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of these tests is to determine the degree of tumor invasion into surrounding tissues which will also define the odds of patient survival.
Late-stage tumors with a significant depth of invasion and metastatic spread are fatal . Localized tumors have healing chances between 75% and 95% .