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Carcinoma of the Lung

Lung Carcinoma


Presentation

  • The report presents a rare case of primary lung sarcomatoid carcinoma with both gastric and colonic metastases, and reviews the literature about endoscopic presentation of colonic metastases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy
  • Thoracic mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Pleural right effusion in moderate quantity Figure 2. First CT, second image. First CT, and bronchoscopy with biopsy were determinant for the diagnostic of squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung.[medichub.ro]
Weight Loss
  • Its typical characteristic in elderly patients is a short duration of symptoms with substantial weight loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms can include cough, chest discomfort or pain, weight loss, and, less commonly, hemoptysis; however, many patients present with metastatic disease without any clinical symptoms.[merckmanuals.com]
  • loss; unintentional weight loss; changes in appetite The individual is easily tired, resulting in fatigue even with minimal activity Headache Low blood pressure Invasion of the bronchial lumen occlusion may result in the following conditions: Bronchial[dovemed.com]
Lymphadenopathy
  • Pneumonia, pleural effusion, wheeze, lymphadenopathy are not uncommon. Other symptoms may be secondary to metastases (bone, contralateral lung, brain, adrenal glands, and liver, in frequency order for NSCLC 12 ) or paraneoplastic syndromes.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Thoracic mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Pleural right effusion in moderate quantity Figure 2. First CT, second image. First CT, and bronchoscopy with biopsy were determinant for the diagnostic of squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung.[medichub.ro]
  • Symptoms of Lung Cancer Due to Distant Metastases Site Sign or symptom Frequency (%) Any site Any sign or symptom 33 Liver Weakness, weight loss, anorexia, hepatomegaly Up to 60 Bone Pain, fracture, elevated alkaline phosphatase Up to 25 Lymphatics Lymphadenopathy[aafp.org]
Soft Tissue Swelling
  • The patient underwent Tc methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) bone scan and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), which showed abnormal metabolism of the right patella with bone destruction and soft tissue swelling.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Soft Tissue Mass
  • A CT scan of his chest showed an ovoid mass in the lower lobe of the left lung, and an MRI of the spine showed a left lateral paraspinal soft tissue mass causing central canal stenosis and mild cord compression.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • We report a patient with MEC who presented with cough, hemoptysis, and localized findings on chest examination. This case emphasizes the importance of obtaining adequate biopsy to establish the correct diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Palliative care Lung symptoms commonly reported by patients with incurable lung cancer include shortness of breath from pleural effusion, coughing, or haemoptysis (coughing up blood).[myvmc.com]
Hoarseness
  • Symptoms vary, depending on the location of the cancer: Lung cancer—a new cough or cough that doesn’t go away, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, chest pain, hoarseness Cancer of the trachea—dry cough, hoarseness, breathlessness, difficulty swallowing[publichealth.va.gov]
  • According to the Cleveland Clinic, these symptoms include: Persistent, prolonged cough Coughing up blood Wheezing and shortness of breath Chest pain Appetite loss Hoarseness Unexplainable weight loss Fatigue or weakness Difficulty swallowing Diagnosis[livescience.com]
  • Common symptoms of lung cancer include A cough that doesn't go away and gets worse over time Constant chest pain Coughing up blood Shortness of breath, wheezing, or hoarseness Repeated problems with pneumonia or bronchitis Swelling of the neck and face[medlineplus.gov]
  • Clinical presentation can significantly vary and can present in the following ways: constitutional fever weight loss malaise primary tumor cough hemoptysis dyspnea local invasion dysphagia ( esophageal compression ) hoarseness ( recurrent laryngeal nerve[radiopaedia.org]
  • Other symptoms include: constant chest pain shortness of breath wheezing recurring lung infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis bloody or rust colored sputum hoarseness swelling of the neck and face caused by a tumor that presses on large blood vessels[beaumont.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • Subsequently, pleural effusion was detected, and an investigation of the pleural effusion revealed the existence of malignant cells with an epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutation. Gefitinib was administered and the pleural effusion resolved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Generic differentials for individuals features are as follows: hilar mass (unilateral) : differential for a hilar mass solitary pulmonary nodule : differential for a solitary pulmonary nodule pleural effusion : differential for a pleural effusion[radiopaedia.org]
Hemoptysis
  • We report a patient with MEC who presented with cough, hemoptysis, and localized findings on chest examination. This case emphasizes the importance of obtaining adequate biopsy to establish the correct diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Precursor lesion - uncommonly seen: Pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. [1] Clinical: /-Hemoptysis. Gross Central location (close to large airways) - typical. Necrosis. Images Small cell carcinoma of the lung - centre of image.[librepathology.org]
  • Symptoms can include cough, chest discomfort or pain, weight loss, and, less commonly, hemoptysis; however, many patients present with metastatic disease without any clinical symptoms.[merckmanuals.com]
  • A chronic cough and hemoptysis may be present. More peripheral tumors, if not found incidentally on imaging, usually present when larger, invading into chest wall (e.g. Pancoast tumor ) 3.[radiopaedia.org]
Dry Cough
  • Due to difficulties in the form of dry cough, feeling of dis-comfort and pain in the right hemithorax, fatigue, heavy breathing, sweating, fever up to 39.6 C the patient was treated as with combined antibiotic therapy (macrolides, cephalosporins and penicillin[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms vary, depending on the location of the cancer: Lung cancer—a new cough or cough that doesn’t go away, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, chest pain, hoarseness Cancer of the trachea—dry cough, hoarseness, breathlessness, difficulty swallowing[publichealth.va.gov]
Loss of Appetite
  • , decreased appetite, mouth sores, fatigue, low blood cell counts, and a higher chance of developing infections The treatment can also cause infertility in men and women.[dovemed.com]
  • […] of appetite or weight loss Fatigue Doctors diagnose lung cancer using a physical exam, imaging, and lab tests.[medlineplus.gov]
  • […] of appetite loss of weight headache pain in other parts of the body not affected by the cancer bone fractures Other symptoms can be caused by substances made by lung cancer cells - referred to as a paraneoplastic syndrome.[beaumont.org]
  • If symptoms occur, they may include a cough that doesn’t go away coughing up blood or mucus shortness of breath or trouble breathing wheezing fatigue discomfort when swallowing chest pain fever hoarseness unexplained weight loss poor appetite high levels[drugs.com]
Retinal Lesion
  • Nocardia endogenous endophthalmitis can present as a mass retinal lesion in immunosuppressed patients with metastatic disease. Early vitreous and retinal biopsy may be required for definitive diagnosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Macula
  • Ophthalmic examination revealed a white elevated mass in the macula with hemorrhage, concerning for metastasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Knee Pain
  • A 71-year-old man presented with a progressive right knee pain which persisted for 6 months and was not relieved by pain medications. He had a history of lung squamous carcinoma 1 year ago.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Back Pain
  • CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma in a 63-year-old HIV-positive Hispanic male who presented with back pain, dry cough, and weight loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • A complete staging workup for NSCLC should be carried out to evaluate the extent of disease. (See Workup .) Treatment primarily involves surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Atelectasis
  • Staging of LUNG CANCER• T1 - Tumor 3 cm without pleural / main stem bronchus involvement• T2 - Tumor 3 cm / involvement of main stem bronchus 2 cm from carina, visceral, pleural, lobar atelectasis• T3 - Tumor with involvement of chest wall, diaphragm,[slideshare.net]
  • T2: Tumour with any of the following features: 3cm in greatest dimension Involves main bronchus, 2cm or more distal to the carina Invades visceral pleura Associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis, extending to the hilar region but not involving[myvmc.com]
  • Central tumours generally produce symptoms of cough, dyspnea, atelectasis, postobstructive pneumonia, wheezing, and hemoptysis; whereas, peripheral tumours , in addition to causing cough and dyspnea, can lead to pleural effusion and severe pain as a result[pathophys.org]
  • Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma often are centrally located and may appear to be pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs), atelectasis (collapsed lung), or pit-like masses.[healthcommunities.com]
  • First CT in 13.01.2015: expansive process at central lung, which causes atelectasis of medium lobe, and partial right lower lobe. Thoracic mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Pleural right effusion in moderate quantity Figure 2. First CT, second image.[medichub.ro]
Left Pleural Effusion
  • A 74-year-old Japanese male presented with dyspnea and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed abundant left pleural effusion and a mass in lower lobe of the left lung.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • Subsequently, pleural effusion was detected, and an investigation of the pleural effusion revealed the existence of malignant cells with an epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutation. Gefitinib was administered and the pleural effusion resolved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Generic differentials for individuals features are as follows: hilar mass (unilateral) : differential for a hilar mass solitary pulmonary nodule : differential for a solitary pulmonary nodule pleural effusion : differential for a pleural effusion[radiopaedia.org]

Treatment

  • Thus, it does not benefit from treatment with somatostatin analogs and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

Etiology

  • Etiology of Bronchogenic carcinoma• 40 - 70 yrs [peak 50 - 60 yrs]• Tobacco smoking• Industrial hazards• Air pollution• Dietary factors• Genetic factors• Scarring of lung tissue 8. Tobacco smoking1. Statistical evidence2. Clinical evidence3.[slideshare.net]
  • (Etiology) The exact cause of Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Lung is unknown.[dovemed.com]
  • […] bronchus or lung Sites Lung: central / bronchial / hilar; rarely a peripheral nodule Submucosal growth Metastasis to liver, adrenals, bone, bone marrow, brain; often widespread Pathophysiology Arises from neuroendocrine cells of basal bronchial epithelium Etiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Etiology The smoking of tobacco is the primary cause of lung cancer and patterns of occurrence are largely determined by historical exposure.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]

Epidemiology

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY• Cigarette smoking• Asbestos• Industrial chemicals • PETROCHEMICAL • METAL REFINING • ARSENIC• Diet - Deficiency of • Vit-E • ß-Carotene 5. 5 main histologic types of lung cancer1. Squamous cell ca (3 to 50%)2.[slideshare.net]
  • Epidemiology of lung cancer’, Chest. 2003, 123:21S-49S Beckles MA, Spiro SG, Colice GL, Rudd RM.[myvmc.com]
  • Epidemiology Smoking increases the risk of all histological subtypes but is most strongly associated with squamous cell and small cell disease.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
  • Epidemiological data show recently that overall survival (OS) gains more pronounced for patients with adenocarcinoma histology, less for patients with squamous-cell tumors(2).[medichub.ro]
  • A review of the epidemiology of lung adenocarcinoma" . International Journal of Epidemiology . 26 (1): 14–23. doi : 10.1093/ije/26.1.14 . PMID 9126499 . Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Kadara H, Kabbout M, Wistuba II (January 2012).[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Symptoms Mechanism and pathophysiology Primary lung lesion symptoms Cough (50-70%) Presence of a mass irritates the cough receptors in the airway More common in squamous cell carcinoma andSCLC (more commonly found in the central airways) Obstruction from[pathophys.org]
  • […] coding ICD-10: C34.90 - malignant neoplasm of unspecified part of unspecified bronchus or lung Sites Lung: central / bronchial / hilar; rarely a peripheral nodule Submucosal growth Metastasis to liver, adrenals, bone, bone marrow, brain; often widespread Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Pathophysiology Both exposure (environmental or occupational) to particular agents and an individual’s susceptibility to these agents are thought to contribute to one’s risk of developing lung cancer.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Gov't MeSH terms Animals Apoptosis Blotting, Western Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid/metabolism Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid/pathology Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid/prevention & control* Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These therapies can derail the cancer’s growth by preventing or changing chemical reactions linked to particular mutations. For example, some target therapies prevent cancer cells from receiving chemical “messages” telling them to grow.[drugs.com]
  • How can Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Lung be Prevented? Currently, there is no known prevention method for Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Lung.[dovemed.com]
  • Find events and organizations MAY Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month Grab your sunscreen and show your support for skin cancer prevention! May is Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month.[navigatelungcancer.bmsinformation.com]

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