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Carcinoma of the Male Breast

Breast male Cancer Carcinoma


Presentation

  • Overall 5-year survival was 50%, but, due to the late age at presentation, more than half the deaths were non-breast cancer related. One quarter of the patients presented with locally advanced or metastatic disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Axillary Lymphadenopathy
  • Examination showed an ulcerating cutaneous mass over the left anterior chest wall, left axillary lymphadenopathy and tenderness over the spine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No skin involvement or axillary lymphadenopathy was seen. A clinical diagnosis of primary breast neoplasm or a metastatic lesion was considered and the lump excised.[ijpmonline.org]
  • Axillary lymphadenopathy. Investigations Refer to a local one-stop breast clinic if there is any doubt or any suspicion of breast cancer. Imaging: mammography or ultrasonography.[patient.info]
Difficulty Walking
  • He initially presented with a 2-week history of difficulty walking because of bilateral hip and lower back pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Burkina Faso
  • Male breast cancer in Africa, apropos of 5 cases at the Ouagadougou University Teaching Hospital (Burkina Faso). Bull Cancer 1997 ; 84(2) : 175 –7. 14 Eldar S, Nash E, Abrahamson J. Radiation carcinogenesis in the male breast.[academic.oup.com]
Back Pain
  • He initially presented with a 2-week history of difficulty walking because of bilateral hip and lower back pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In July 1999, the patient visited the hospital because of back pain. Tumor markers were measured as high (Ca15–3, 72.9 U/ml; CEA, 42.6 ng/ml). Whole-body bone scintigraphy showed multiple bone metastases.[academic.oup.com]
Decreased Libido
Breast Mass
  • An 82-year-old man presented with a right breast mass. Histologic examination of an excisional biopsy showed lobular in situ and infiltrating carcinoma. The patient was phenotypically male and had fathered children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Workup from a radiological point of view is the same as for women including the use of needle biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. The average age of diagnosis of male breast cancer is 60-70 years, which is later than female breast cancer.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Therefore a diagnostic workup was still required to distinguish and confirm the actual presenting problem of the physical findings. 1. Ductal carcinoma in situ - These tumors are a category of breast cancer in men.[ispub.com]
  • […] imaging with somatostatin analogs attached to the radioactive tracer Technetium-99m bone scanning Procedures Endoscopic procedures, such as the following, may be used for biopsy and diagnosis: Bronchoscopy Esophagogastroscopy Gastroscopy Colonoscopy See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hypercholesterolemia
  • ., prostate cancer Alcohol consumption and liver disease Obesity Diabetes mellitus Hypertension Hypercholesterolemia Family history of breast cancer BRCA2 gene mutations Figure 5.38 Breast Cancer in Men A.[breast-cancer.ca]

Treatment

  • Treatment is similar to that of women with breast cancer. Men with axillary nodal metastasis should receive adjuvant systemic combination chemotherapy or tamoxifen, or both, after primary surgical treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • BACKGROUND: Considerable debate exists concerning the prognosis of breast cancer in male patients compared with that in female patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Although the underlying etiology of male breast cancer may be partially due to hormonal or environmental changes, this disease is rare compared to female breast cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of male breast cancer remains poorly understood, but an imbalance in the estrogen-testosterone ratio is definitely implicated.[cancerjournal.net]
  • ICD-10-CM Codes › C00-D49 Neoplasms › C50-C50 Malignant neoplasms of breast › Use Additional Use Additional Help Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]
  • It has been reported that exposure to estrogens, the use of some drugs such as cimetidine, irradiation and long-term working in electromagnetic fields are etiological factors in male breast cancer ( 6, 12 ).[academic.oup.com]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiology, prognostic factors, survival by stage, pattern of metastasis, and response to treatment in men are similar to those in women with breast carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We provide this rare case history; review the literature on SCNC of the breast; and discuss detailed information regarding epidemiology, histogenesis, clinical and histologic diagnosis criteria, surgical and adjuvant treatment, and prognosis.[dovepress.com]
  • Descriptive epidemiology of male breast cancer in Europe. Int J cancer 1992;51:62-6. [ PUBMED ] 4. Schotterfield D, Lilienfeld AM. Some epidemiologic features of breast cancer among males. Am J Public Health 1963;53:890-7. 5.[cancerjournal.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • , and primary care providers have been challenged to determine the exact risk factor associated with MBC.1-3,6-11 Several hypotheses try to describe the pathophysiology and etiology of MBC.[ispub.com]
  • Some studies show that smoking tobacco also correlates with developing esophageal candidiasis.[2][3][4] Pathophysiology Candida albicans can be part of the normal oral flora.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology The mucous membrane of the esophagus is naturally lined by the protective innate immune mechanical barrier called the nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.[hindawi.com]
  • Pathophysiology Carcinoid tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derived from primitive stem cells, which can give rise to multiple cell lineages. [36] In the intestinal tract, these tumors develop deep in the mucosa, growing slowly and extending into[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • The low incidence of this disease prevents therapeutic questions from being addressed in prospective randomized trials. As such, treatment algorithms have generally been extrapolated from those used in female breast cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention and risk factors for male breast cancer Early detection can help prevent the spread of cancer.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Preventative measures that can be taken to prevent Breast Cancer in Men are as follows: Drink alcohol in moderation; limit to one or two drinks a day Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly Early detection and treatment can help in lowering the[dovemed.com]
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 20 percent of all people with cancer develop the condition.[healthline.com]

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