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Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

Carcinoma of Oral Cavity


Presentation

  • A 54-year-old woman presented to a dental clinic with a 1-year history of oral swelling and a sore mouth.[nejm.org]
  • Numbers show each treatment plan (i.e. ‘1’ for a conventional parallel-opposed plan and ‘2’ for the present RTRT 4-beam plan). Figure 3. Dose–volume histogram (DVH).[academic.oup.com]
  • Presented with midline ulcerated mass. Diagnosis: Squamous cell carcinoma, arising actinic cheilitis 64 year old male with a long history of cigarette smoking presents with an a symetrical nodular mass in the retromolar region.[oralcancerfoundation.org]
  • Smoking and alcohol act synergistically in the development of oral cancer – the risk when both of these factors is present is more than double the risk of exposure to one factor alone.[myvmc.com]
  • These may present as a tumor over the neck. There are symptoms like sore throat, pain over the ear and feelings of something stuck in the throat. There may be bleeding.[news-medical.net]
Crying
  • About half way into radiation, I broke down crying because of all the pain, so my mom said she would drive me. That day literally was amazing.[sixstepscreening.org]
Jaw Pain
  • Other symptoms of floor of mouth cancer may include: A sore in the mouth that continues to grow Mouth pain Dentures that no longer fit White, red or dark patches inside the mouth Difficulty moving the jaw Jaw pain or swelling Numb mouth Severe ear pain[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • Other mouth cancer symptoms may include: Persistent tongue and/or jaw pain A lump or thickening in the inside of the mouth A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil or lining of the mouth Difficulty swallowing or chewing Difficulty moving the jaw[cancercenter.com]
  • pain or irritation in the mouth that doesn't go away unexplained weight loss swelling in your jaw a lump or mass in your neck the constant feeling that something is caught in your throat Most often these symptoms are caused by other, less serious medical[drugs.com]
  • pain or swelling Difficulty swallowing, chewing, speaking, or moving the tongue or jaw Numb tongue or area of the mouth Loose teeth or dentures Persistent bad breath Causes and Risk Factors While the exact cause of oral cancer is unclear, there are factors[verywell.com]
Poor Oral Hygiene
  • Other risk factors can include: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) family history of mouth cancers poor oral hygiene and gum disease exposure to the sun chewing the seed of the areca palm tree (sometimes called areca or betel nut).[cancer.org.au]
  • Risk factors may include: Tobacco use Regular and heavy alcohol consumption Advancing age Sun exposure Poor diet Poor oral hygiene Gum disease Habitual chewing of the lips or cheeks Irritants, such as breathing in smoky, or constantly polluted, atmospheres[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
Lesion of the Tongue
  • Q: I have a premalignant lesion on the tongue will this spread to other parts of my mouth or body? A: Oral premalignant lesions do not typically spread as would a cancer or an infection. However, these lesions can transform into a cancer over time.[maaom.memberclicks.net]
  • Anna Age 45 Stage IV Base of Tongue Cancer Non-smoker ANNA from Pennsylvania Symptoms: Painful lesion on lateral tongue. Radiation and chemo gave me nine years cancer free.[sixstepscreening.org]
Neck Mass
  • mass due to metastatic lymphadenopathy May have discomfort or pain under the mobile tongue, difficulty with protraction or swallowing, speech impairment Grading Grade 1: Well differentiated Grade 2: Moderately differentiated Grade 3: Poorly differentiated[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Other symptoms include: A sore on the lip that doesn't heal Persistent lip pain or lip numbness A lump or thickening on the lip A white or red patch on the lip A neck mass Treatments for lip cancer Our goal is to treat lip cancer in ways that cause as[cancercenter.com]
  • If an adult has a neck mass that does not go away, a needle biopsy and/or CT scan may be necessary to diagnose the cause.[entnet.org]
  • Patients with tonsillar carcinomas may present with a neck mass, usually in the jugulodigastric region. Even if the neck mass is not evident on casual inspection, careful palpation may reveal cervical lymphadenopathy.[patient.info]

Workup

  • All patients included for analysis had undergone a standard metastatic workup and all were staged M0 at the time of diagnosis. All patients were treated with curative intent.[journalotohns.biomedcentral.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment in Alberta with curative intent Exclusion criteria were defined as 1. Previous oral cavity cancer with or without treatment. 2. Refusal of prescribed treatment 3. Treatment with palliative intent 4.[journalotohns.biomedcentral.com]
  • This was probably due to the short treatment period of our regimen. There is accumulating evidence that suggests overall treatment time is a definite prognostic factor.[academic.oup.com]
  • Two years after treatment, she remained free of recurrence. A 54-year-old woman presented to a dental clinic with a 1-year history of oral swelling and a sore mouth.[nejm.org]
  • Coughing and breathlessness from lung involvement may require specific treatment.[myvmc.com]
  • Learn more about symptoms, causes, and treatment for cancer that begins on the lips. Tongue Cancer Find in-depth information on the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral tongue cancer.[mskcc.org]

Prognosis

  • But patients normally presents when pain and discomfort is predominant and then the prognosis becomes poor.[oralcancerawareness.org]
  • Imaging findings, treatment and prognosis are sometimes subsite -specific and are therefore in some cases discussed separately: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma of the retromolar[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis of mouth cancer While it is not possible to predict the exact course of a disease, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of your disease based on the type of cancer, your test results and the rate of tumour growth.[cancer.org.au]
  • Prognosis The earlier oral cancer is found, the better the prognosis. Most people with early-stage cancers have an excellent cure rate.[drugs.com]

Etiology

  • Of note, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for squamous cell carcinoma is strongest oral cavity (compared to other regions in the head and neck), with HPV DNA isolated from up to 50% of cases, and thought responsible for[radiopaedia.org]
  • The etiology is unknown. But a number of etiological factors have been implicated.[slideshare.net]
  • Certain HPV strains are etiologic risk factors for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) It is important to note that over 25% of all oral cancers occur in people who do not smoke and who only drink alcohol occasionally.[webmd.com]
  • Oral human papillomavirus (HPV), typically acquired via oral-genital contact, may have a role in the etiology of some oral cancers; however, HPV is identified in oral cancer much less often than it is in oropharyngeal cancer.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Some studies in Australia, Brazil and Germany pointed to alcohol-containing mouthwashes as also being etiologic agents in the oral cancer risk family. Chewing betel, paan and Areca is known to be a strong risk factor for developing oral cancer.[disabled-world.com]

Epidemiology

  • As they share epidemiology, pathology and general principles with other squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, those topics are covered there. Below are a few general comments specific to the oral cavity.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Oral Oncol 34:284–291. 7- Ho T, Wei Q, Sturgis EM (2007) Epidemiology of carcinogen metabolism genes and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.[otorrinocontiplanes.com]
  • […] the lower alveolar ridge to the undersurface of the tongue Posterior boundary is base of anterior pillar of tonsil Divided into two sides by the submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands SCC of floor of mouth is categorized under SCC of oral cavity Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • International Journal of Epidemiology. 2010;39:182-96. 12. Moore C. Smoking and Cancer of the Mouth, Pharynx, and Larynx. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1965 Jan 26;191(4):107-10.[canada.ca]
  • Human papillomavirus and the epidemiology of head and neck cancer. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 75.[medlineplus.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] mouth is categorized under SCC of oral cavity Epidemiology Age: fifth - sixth decade; 85 - 95% are males 5% of all cancers in United States and 50% in India Sites In decreasing order of frequency: anterior, lateral or posterior part of floor of mouth Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Pathophysiology In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), modern DNA technology, especially allelic imbalance (loss of heterozygosity) studies, have identified chromosomal changes suggestive of the involvement of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), particularly[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • These cancers are very treatable if caught early, and are easily preventable. The most common causes of head and neck cancer are tobacco and alcohol use.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • […] say whether the HPV vaccine will prevent these cancers.[mouthhealthy.org]
  • BC Cancer's Oral Cancer Prevention Program works with dentists and dental hygienists to prevent the development of oral cancer, and to detect it at the earliest possible stage.[bccancer.bc.ca]
  • Your Best Option When in doubt, seek prevention! You should already practice daily oral hygiene to prevent tooth decay and gum disease: brushing regularly with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily and limiting sweets.[colgate.com]
  • Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004. P.63-67 2. International Agency for Research on Cancer.[canada.ca]

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