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Cardiac Diverticulum


Presentation

  • The case of a 6-year-old white boy who died suddenly while playing is presented. Autopsy revealed a ruptured diverticulum of the left ventricular apex with massive hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade. No other abnormalities were found.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We also review similar cases presented in the literature and discuss management options. Citation: Abi-Nader, K., David, A. L., Yates, R., & Pandya, P. (2009).[laur.lau.edu.lb]
  • Normal anatomy, variants, and common pitfalls in scanning and diagnosis are presented.[books.google.com]
Fatigue
  • We ask about general symptoms (anxious mood, depressed mood, fatigue, pain, and stress) regardless of condition. Last updated: May 14, 2019[patientslikeme.com]
  • Some of my symptoms are chest pressure, shortness of breath, fatigue, extreme and continuous 3 Responses sunnyside, Thanks for the post. I have never seen a patient with this condition. It is indeed a rare condition.[medhelp.org]
  • […] large volume rectal bleeding; ischemic colitis with its abdominal cramping and hematochezia or melena; peptic or upper GI inflammatory causes of bleeding with hematemesis, melena, or coffee ground emesis) and the subtle signs of symptomatic anemia (fatigue[nature.com]
Atrial Septal Defect
  • In our patient, there was an atrial septal defect within the oval fossa, along with a ventricular septal defect and unobstructed albeit anomalous venous pulmonary return to the left atrium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Wadia Maternity Hospital, Mumbai, India) Abstract Fetal cardiac anomalies such as ventricular and atrial septal defects, those involving outflow tracts, chambers, and valves are often encountered in routine screening.[jpgo.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • The radiographic findings were non-specific, apart from some bilateral pleural effusions. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a not enlarged LV with end-systolic volume of 70 ml and EDV of 135 ml and end-diastolic diameter of 57 mm.[icvts.oxfordjournals.org]
Chest Pain
  • We describe the case of a 59-year old male patient with an acute onset of chest pain who was admitted to our unit with a suspected rupture of the left ventricle pseudoaneurysm, compressing the left atrium and the ascending aorta.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE REPORT A 59-year old man was urgently admitted to our unit with an acute onset of chest pain and haemoptysis.[icvts.oxfordjournals.org]
  • During his hospital stay, he experienced chest pain, with electrocardiographic changes on the inferior wall.[revespcardiol.org]
  • The new chest pain is likely a sign that something has changed, and thus deserves further attention.[medhelp.org]
  • Usually following an asymptomatic course, in some patients, it may cause heart failure, thrombus formation, arrhythmia, rupture, or chest pain.[jcecho.org]
Exertional Chest Pain
  • , chest pain) associated with an obscure occult bleeding lesion.[nature.com]
Diastolic Murmur
  • The physical examination of the patient revealed a sinus rhythm of 100 beats/min, blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg, diastolic murmur heard along the left sternal edge and normal vesicular breath sounds.[icvts.oxfordjournals.org]
Heart Murmur
  • Heart murmurs were heard in nine of the 18 children, and a nonspecific systolic ejection murmur in one. A systolic click was heard in only four children.[link.springer.com]
Hydrops Fetalis
  • As all cardiac protrusions, they could be the substrate for the development of arrhythmias of different severity, embolisms or lead to severe ventricular dilatation with systolic heart failure and to hydrops fetalis.[fac.org.ar]
  • Sepulveda W, Drysdale K, Kyle PM, McNeal AD, Moore IE: Congenital left ventricular aneurysm causing hydrops fetalis: prenatal diagnosis with color Doppler ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 1996;15:327–331.[karger.com]
Cesarean Section
  • The patient underwent a cesarean section for obstetric indication, delivered a male baby weighing 3 kg and had normal Apgar at birth. Mother and baby were discharged after a complete pediatric review.[jpgo.org]

Workup

  • A comprehensive workup, including prolonged cardiac monitoring (cumulated duration of 25 days) and cardiac transthoracic/transesophageal echography, was negative.[neurology.org]
Pericardial Effusion
  • Gardiner HM, Wimalasundera R, Pasquini L, Wawryk S, Ho SY: Pericardiocentesis at 14 weeks: effective treatment of pericardial effusion complicating right ventricular diverticulum. Circulation 2005;112:120.[karger.com]
  • They may occur prenatally in association with a pericardial effusion which, if large enough, can compromise fetal circulatory and lung development.[laur.lau.edu.lb]
  • Over the following several weeks, the pericardial effusion resolved. At birth, the baby had an intrapericardial fibrous diverticulum opening into the right ventricle ( Figure 2 ).[circ.ahajournals.org]
  • A cardiac ultrasound done at birth showed the same hyper echoic structure, surrounded by a new pericardial effusion.[criticalcare.imedpub.com]
Pleural Effusion
  • The radiographic findings were non-specific, apart from some bilateral pleural effusions. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a not enlarged LV with end-systolic volume of 70 ml and EDV of 135 ml and end-diastolic diameter of 57 mm.[icvts.oxfordjournals.org]

Treatment

  • Successful outcome after prenatal treatment of a cardiac diverticulum with massive pericardial effusion. Fetal diagnosis and therapy, 25(1), 148-152. Show full item record[laur.lau.edu.lb]
  • Coverage of congenital heart abnormalities includes how the conditions look on scans, which scanning views and modalities to use, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.[books.google.com]
  • Surgical treatment and outcomes of pentalogy of Cantrell in eight patients . Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Vol. 49, Issue. 8, p. 1335. CrossRef Google Scholar Mallula, Kiran K. Sosnowski, Cyndi and Awad, Sawsan 2013.[cambridge.org]

Prognosis

  • Coverage of congenital heart abnormalities includes how the conditions look on scans, which scanning views and modalities to use, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.[books.google.com]
  • More knowledge is however required to understand history and prognosis about this condition. How to Cite: De Bruecker Y, Janssen L, De Somer F, Boeren K, Ector B, Janssens L, et al..[jbsr.be]
  • McElhinney DB, Silverman N (1999) Left ventricular aneurysm inthe fetus: a diagnosis with a mixed prognosis. Cardiol Young9: 123-126.[criticalcare.imedpub.com]
  • We suggest reassuring our patients about the good prognosis of this cardiac anomaly. 2009 S.[karger.com]
  • Prognosis of pentalogy of Cantrell depends mainly on the severity of the intracardiac anomalies and associated malformations . European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 168, Issue. 11, p. 1413.[cambridge.org]

Etiology

  • The diverticulum is thought to occur early in embryogenesis from an outpouching of the endomyocardium through a weak region in the left ventricular wall, but its exact etiology is uncertain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Possible etiologies of the LV diverticulum include maldevelopment of the myocardium, intraventricular sinusoids, or viral infections that may result in a localized weakness of the LV wall with gradual protrusion. [4] A diagnosis can be made with echocardiography[annalspc.com]
  • The etiology of cardiac diverticula and aneurysms in fetal life is poorly understood.[criticalcare.imedpub.com]
  • Maloy WC, Arrants JE, Sowell BF, Hendrix GH (1971) Left ventricular aneurysm of uncertain etiology with recurrent ventricular arrythmias. N Engl J Med 285 :662–663 PubMed Google Scholar 16.[link.springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology MD as an anomaly occurs in 2% of the population, but only 4% of patients with MD develop symptoms over their lifetime.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding in cardiac patients: epidemiology and evolving clinical paradigms . Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2014; 30 :609–614. 4. Barnes GD , Lucas E , Alexander GC et al . National trends in ambulatory oral anticoagulant use .[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] the literature , Angiology , 1982 , vol. 33 (pg. 280 - 6 ) 2 Isolated congenital left ventricular diverticulum in an adult: a case report , Angiology , 1994 , vol. 45 (pg. 743 - 74 ) 3 Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: definition, pathophysiology[icvts.oxfordjournals.org]
  • Pathophysiology Diverticula with ectopic tissue are more likely to be symptomatic.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • The pathophysiological processes that lead to the formation of aneurysms and fetal cardiac diverticula are not too well known, with the most widespread hypothesis being that they are the result of a weakening located in the cardiac wall, because of an[fac.org.ar]
  • Modern pathophysiology and treatment of esophageal diverticula. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2012; 397: 29-35 [Pubmed] [ 2 ].Orringer MB. Epiphrenic diverticula: Fact and fable. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 55:1067-8.[npplweb.com]
  • Pathophysiology The most common site of gastric diverticulum is the posterior wall of gastric fundus , 2 cm below the gastro esophageal junction and 3 cm. of the lesser curvature, usually measured 4 cm with a range of 3-11 cm [ 3 ].[omicsonline.org]

Prevention

  • He was started on aspirin at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/day to prevent any thromboembolic situation.[annalspc.com]
  • Prevention Sepsis can be prevented by preventing infections, according to the CDC. Vaccinations help prevent the flu, pneumonia and other infections. Practicing cleanliness is the best way to prevent bacterial, viral or fungal infections.[livescience.com]
  • A high-fiber diet may prevent development of diverticulosis. Some doctors tell patients with a history of diverticulitis to avoid nuts and seeds in the diet. However, there is no evidence that this is helpful to prevent the disease. Prather C.[lutheranhealthcare.org]
  • In my practice, I have found the most success in preventing repeated bouts of diverticulitis with the Specific Carbohydrate Diet .[drhoffman.com]
  • Treatment for diverticulosis For a person with diverticulosis, there is no proven way to prevent the formation of new diverticula. Treatment revolves around the settling of symptoms.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]

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