Cellulitis is an inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
There is swelling in the affected areas with restricted movement.
Due to active inflammation, there is a high neutrophil count and eosinophilia . Platelet count may be increased in case of bleeding. If the inflammation goes on for more than a few hours, levels of lymphocytes in plasma may also go up.
Entire Body System
The body's reaction to damage is inflammation which is characterized by pain, redness, heat, and swelling. This red, painful region grows bigger as the infection and resulting tissue damage spread. [encyclopedia.com]
Systemic symptoms are soon followed by the development of a localised area of painful, red, swollen skin. [dermnetnz.org]
Pain and tenderness Cytokines, chemokines, nerve growth factor, and prostaglandins released by leukocytes and local cells stimulate the nerve endings and produce pain., Pain and tenderness Cytokines, chemokines, nerve growth factor, and prostaglandins [medicaljoyworks.com]
This may ease the pain and reduce swelling. Pain relievers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen can help reduce discomfort. All medication should be given according to the doctor's instructions. See our fact sheet Pain relief for children. [rch.org.au]
Cellulitis is usually treated with antibiotics to help fight the infection, and pain medications such as Tylenol or Motrin to help relieve pain. [cincinnatichildrens.org]
In the most severe cases, people with cellulitis develop a fever and elevated white blood cell count and may need to be hospitalized. Other symptoms of cellulitis include a rapidly spreading rash, dimpled skin, blisters and fever. [nationaleczema.org]
Bacillary angiomatosis African tick bite fever American tick bite fever Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection Rickettsialpox Rocky Mountain spotted fever Human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis Flea-borne spotted fever Japanese [en.wikipedia.org]
High fever Fever is due to the inflammatory mediators that are released during the multiplication and destruction of the bacteria due to the immune reactions.These endogenous pyrogens act on the hypothalamus and alter the temperature set point.,, High [medicaljoyworks.com]
IBD Hx, Local ulceration Hypersensitivity/drug reaction Hx exposure, pruritus, not toxic, little pain DVT Low (if any) fever, few skin changes Necrotising fasciitis Severe pain, swelling and fever; rapid progression; pain out of proportion; systemic [emed.ie]
Cellulitis may be accompanied by swollen lymph nodes, fever, chills, and fatigue. Self-Care Guidelines If you think you have cellulitis, make an appointment to see your doctor. [skinsight.com]
Signs and symptoms include pain, tenderness and reddening in the affected area, fever, chills, and lymphadenopathy. [fpnotebook.com]
When an individual who has not been diagnosed with lymphedema develops cellulitis, this individual should be reevaluated for lymphedema. [lymphnotes.com]
Congenital lymphedema can also be found as part of Turner and Noonan syndromes. Lymphedema praecox, also known as Meige's disease, is the most common form of primary lymphedema. [casesjournal.biomedcentral.com]
See Reducing the Risk of Lymphedema and Lymphedema Flare-Ups for more information. Was this article helpful? Yes / No [breastcancer.org]
Swelling Skin can become swollen because of damage to your veins (edema) or the lymphatic system (lymphedema) or following surgery. [medicalxpress.com]
Simultaneously, fever, malaise and peripheral eosinophilia were noted. The clinical diagnosis of eosinophilic cellulitis (also known as Well's syndrome) was supported by the histopathological finding of typical "flame figures". [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The symptoms associated with cellulitis can evolve and worsen due to systemic bacterial migration via the bloodstream, and include fever, malaise, and chills. [hardinmd.lib.uiowa.edu]
There is generally no systemic upset or malaise. [independentnurse.co.uk]
In this form of cellulitis, unilateral swelling and redness of the eyelid and orbital area, as well as fever and malaise are usually present. 3. Serious infections of deeper skin structures 4. CAUSES Staphylococcus Streptococcus Group A β H. [slideshare.net]
Visible skin changes such as redness that preceded or are accompanied by feeling sick (malaise), fever, and chills. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU HAVE ANY SIGNS OF CELLULITIS. [lymphnotes.com]
Deep venous thrombosis Pain and swelling without redness or blistering. Positive Homan's sign. Cellulitis may coexist with these disorders. If in doubt, treat for infection. [dermnetnz.org]
We report a 16-month-old girl with varicella complicated by cellulitis, invasive Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection and deep vein thrombosis. She presented with varicella lesions, fever and a painful firm tumefaction on the right lower leg (RLL). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Deep Vein Thrombosis A blood clot, or thrombosis, in a deep vein of the leg can cause swelling, pain, and warmth. Like cellulitis, deep vein thrombosis usually happens in only one leg at a time. [everydayhealth.com]
Eczema herpeticum Eczema herpeticum affects people with atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory skin diseases. The eczema herpeticum infection can be very serious, especially when it spreads over wide areas of skin. [nationaleczema.org]
Eczema is a risk factor for MRSA. Those with eczema on their hands should practice good eczema control. Cover lesions if they are draining. Infected children may need antibiotic treatment for tissue infections. [healthychildren.org]
Predispositions to cellulitis include: Previous episode(s) of cellulitis Fissuring of toes or heels, eg due to athlete's foot, tinea pedis or cracked heels Venous disease, eg gravitational eczema, leg ulceration, and/or lymphoedema Current or prior injury [dermnetnz.org]
The increased blood flow causes warmth and erythema., Erythema of the affected area Occurs due to vasodilation, which opens up the arterioles and new capillary beds. [medicaljoyworks.com]
Furthermore, concluding that the erythema is due to a primary cellulitis may result in monotherapy with systemic antimicrobial agents. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The swelling is greater in the lower lid and accompanied by local erythema, tenderness, and temperature up to 38.4°C. His parents state that he has decreased appetite and activity. [pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
Approximately 19 percent of erythema migrans rashes are a “bull's-eye” rash. 11, 14 Multiple erythema migrans lesions may occur in up to 10 to 20 percent of patients. 11, 14 Associated symptoms are similar to a nonspecific viral illness and often include [aafp.org]
- Foot Pain
Comfort Cool Tennis Elbow Braces - Elbow Wraps, Sleeves & Bands Finger - Thumb Supports Foot and Ankle Braces - Supports Foot Pain & Injury Hernia Aids and Support Hip Surgery and Injury Knee Braces & Support Orthopedic Back Cushions Orthopedic Pillows [activeforever.com]
The effectiveness of NSAIDs in controlling toe pain varies greatly from person to person. After bunion surgery, most patients have less foot pain and are better able to participate in everyday activities. [orthoinfo.aaos.org]
An abnormal bend that occurs in the middle joint of a toe, usually the toe next to your big toe, can cause pain and pressure. Metatarsalgia. This condition causes pain and swelling in the ball of your foot. [mayoclinic.org]
In my practice, I have corrected hundreds of bunion deformities and have seen firsthand how my patients’ lives improve when they are free of foot pain. [smgortho.com]
- Neck Pain
Neck pain and dyspnea soon disappeared and the patient recovered. [doi.org]
Pain Comfort Cool Tennis Elbow Braces - Elbow Wraps, Sleeves & Bands Finger - Thumb Supports Foot and Ankle Braces - Supports Foot Pain & Injury Hernia Aids and Support Hip Surgery and Injury Knee Braces & Support Orthopedic Back Cushions Orthopedic [activeforever.com]
Symptoms include: Breathing difficulty Difficulty swallowing Drooling Unusual speech (sounds like the person has a "hot potato" in the mouth) Tongue swelling or protrusion of the tongue out of the mouth Fever Neck pain Tooth pain Neck swelling Redness [medlineplus.gov]
pain and stiffness. 17 The classic triad of meningitis, cranial neuropathy, and radiculoneuropathy has been described, although these conditions do not always occur together. [web.archive.org]
Stages and Symptoms of Lyme Disease Stage Symptom Early localized Erythema migrans Virus-like illness (e.g., fatigue, malaise, fever, chills, myalgia, headache) Early disseminated Common: Cardiac (e.g., atrioventricular block) Dermatologic (e.g., multiple [aafp.org]
- Leg Pain
The skin may be weakened and may ulcerate in areas Legs, ankles, or other areas may become swollen Open sores, ulcers Itching and/or leg pains Sometimes pain may persist from swollen tissues and may feel like "stabbing" or "needle pricks" The cracks [en.wikipedia.org]
Face, Head & Neck
- Unable to Walk
Conservative treatment is recommended first and then if this doesn’t alleviate the condition (you are unable to walk more than a few blocks and medication and rest don’t reverse the swelling and pain) you may be advised to have surgery. [theconversation.com]
심장성 신경증의 심인성 형태(Psychogenic forms of Cardiac neurosis) 다코스타 증후군의 심인성 형태(Psychogenic forms of Da Costa's syndrome) 위장성 신경증의 심인성 형태(Psychogenic forms of Gastric neurosis) 신경순환성 무력증의 심인성 형태(Psychogenic forms of Neurocirculatory asthenia) 공기연하증(空氣嚥下症)의 심인성 [dic.impact.pe.kr]
The work up of cellulitis includes examination of the site of infection and blood cultures. The blood culture and sensitivity is done to check the causative agent so that specific antibiotics can be given.
Blood tests showing the total blood count to confirm active inflammation as well as culture and sensitivity are performed to check presence of organisms.
We converted these variables into a points system to create the ALT-70 cellulitis score as follows: Asymmetry (3 points), Leukocytosis (1 point), Tachycardia (1 point), and age ≥70 (2 points). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Very common mimickers include: Bilateral redness without tachycardia/leukocytosis in a patient with edema and/or heart failure, suggestive of stasis dermatitis. [mdcalc.com]
Some women may also experience relentless chills, and leukocytosis (an increase in the white blood cell count). [breast-cancer.ca]
Treatment of cellulitis is a course of antibiotics. Broad spectrum antibiotics may be administered or if deemed suitable, cultures can be sent to check for the causative organism and then specific antibiotics given .
Patients with severe cellulitis are given antibiotics either intravenously or parenterally .
Prognosis is very good with the infection soon clearing out in a few days to weeks, depending upon its severity.
Initially there is erythema and swelling in the infected area. The area becomes painful to touch, and if the involved region is in the periphery, movement may become restricted till infection resolves.
Usually, infections are resolved within a few hours to days, but if the cellulitis is left untreated or the host has a compromised immune system, the cellulitis may start showing more systemic manifestations. These may include fever with or without chills, malaise, lymphangitic spread showing red lines, pain of severe intensity and in some extremely rare cases, shock due to septicaemia.
Cellulitis always occurs due to an infection which is caused by entry of microorganism through the skin into the blood or subcutaneous tissue. As a consequence of this, inflammatory process begins. The type of infection depends upon the source, organism involved, host factors etc. Here are a few categories that may cause cellulitis:
Whether a person gets an infection or not, and whether it progresses to cellulitis or simply resolves on its own, depends on host factors. More specifically, it depends on host defences.
A weak immune system predisposes to severe cellulitis. Diseases like AIDS and cancer make an individual more susceptible to cellulitis whereas diseases like diabetes mellitus, arterio-venous stasis, chronic liver disease (particularly susceptible to V.vulnificus ) and renal diseases appear to predispose to recurrent infections.
Some families are inherently susceptible to some infections so cellulitis may be more prevalent among them.
Hospital Acquired Cellulitis
Post-operative infections leading to cellulitis around surgical incisions, although not that common, may occur in hospitalised patients.
Patients admitted due to open wounds as a result of trauma may contract infections that could result in cellulitis. The most commonly involved microorganisms in such cases include group A beta hemolytic streptococcus and Clostridium perfringens.
Patents who have undergone lymphadenectomy as a part of their cancer treatment may become a target of infections.
This form of cellulitis occurs due to infection in a patient already suffering from a temporary ailment. An example of such a scenario is:
A patient of varicella or measles experiences extreme discomfort and itching around the pustules. Repeated scratching over the involved areas may cause an infection which may lead to cellulitis.
Bite wounds from animals like dogs, cats and rats may cause cellulitis due to transfer of pathogens from their saliva. The most commonly encountered bite wounds are dog bites which commonly involve organisms like Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pastuerella multocida. Bite wounds from rats usually cause infections from Streptobacillus moniliformis.
Bites from human to other humans may sometimes result in infection, most commonly from organisms like Eikenella corrodens .
These may be caused by IV drug abusers where the causative agent most commonly is Staph. aureus.
Puncture wounds may occur in some athletes from their shoes from organisms like Pseudomonas. Scratches and injuries received in damp or wet areas like beaches or swamps may get infections from non-land based bacteria like Aeromonas hydrophilia, etc
Tinea pedis may be associated with cellulitis between or under toes. Prolonged stay in bed may cause venous stasis leading to infection.
Cellulitis is a very common, non-reportable disease so the exact prevalence is heretofore unknown.
It has no sex predilection, occurring equally in both males and females.
Generally, cellulitis has no age predilection. However, it may be noted that some particular scenarios of cellulitis are more prevalent in individuals belonging to specific age groups. A few examples of such scenarios include:
- Perianal cellulitis, often occurring due to group A beta haemolytic streptococcus is usually found in children under 3 years of age .
- Pneumococcal facial cellulitis is more prevalent in young children.
- Facial cellulitis by other causes is generally found more in adults over 50 years.
- Some studies reveal that cellulitis is generally found more in adults aged 45 years and above.
Cellulitis has no known predilection of race. However, some microbes are found more in some particular areas so cellulitis by those organisms may be more localised there. Overall, cellulitis has no association with any ethnicity or race.
Cellulitis is an inflammation of the skin, it's layers, and the underlying subcutaneous tissue. It begins when the skin is breached by microorganisms either due to preexisting injury or a new cut, laceration or puncture. Sometimes, the skin breach may not be apparent or easily visible as it may be extremely small and may go unnoticed at first.
Once the organism has entered the body, it grows and multiplies, releasing toxins that results in active infection. When the immune system senses that there is an ongoing infection, it sends cells of the acute inflammatory cascade to battle the invading microbes.
The cells of acute inflammation include mostly neutrophils and few eosinophils.
This results in release of cytotoxic substances that paralyse or kill the invaders and lead to their phagocytosis. The temperature of the area involved increases giving calor. Vasodilation leads to redness and erythema. Swelling occurs and cellular debris accumulates, both from the cells involved as well as cells of the surrounding structures. This debris is slowly cleared away, resulting in the swelling going down after a few hours to a few days.
At times, pus may form and collect as a small pustule or a cyst but this is not very common. Sometimes, cellulitis may spread via lymphatic route to other regions creating another bout of infection there.
Cellulitis, as the name indicates, is an inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It results from an acute infection due to any microbe leading to an inflammatory process launched by the immune system to fight off the invading microorganisms . This results in the following cardinal signs:
Dolor: Pain in the infected tissues and the surrounding area.
Calor: Warmth in the area involved.
Rubor: Redness or erythema of the skin around the infected area.
Tumor: Swelling of the area involved. Swelling may be minimal in mild infections or extensive in severe cases.
Functio Laesa: Normal functioning of the involved area is disturbed as the inflammatory process does its job.
Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and underlying tissues which is caused by various bacteria.
Symptoms include redness, swelling and warmth in the affected area. The swelling is accompanied with pain in the region. The swelling remains till the infection has resolved, which takes a few days to complete. If the wound was visible, a small scar may also form which later on disappears as well.
Treatment is fairly straightforward, involving antibiotics. If there is a collection of pus, it should be drained out and the wound should be cleaned.
Cellulitis is a very common occurrence in which acute inflammation occurs due to entry of pathogens. It usually persists for a few hours to a few days. Some common organisms causing cellulitis are:
By a 3 day course of antibiotics, the infection is usually resolved, unless it has extensively spread, in which case, the duration of treatment increases.
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