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Central Nervous System Disorder

Central Nervous System Diseases


Presentation

  • Neurological soft signs are nonlocalizing signs of deviant performance on a motor or sensory test where no other sign of a neurological lesion is present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At present, in contrast with its past success, this causative relation seems to be no more tenable or at least not as solid as it appeared.[link.springer.com]
  • Changes in brain HA show an age- and sex-related pattern, and alterations in brain HA levels are present in different CNS regions of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The disease can present with varied mental, affective, motor (somatic and autonomic), and sensory signs and symptoms.[quizlet.com]
  • Case History—A 65 yr old man presenting with poor memory a few months after a surgical admission. Case History—An 80 yr old man presenting with falls, reduced mobility, muscular weakness and peripheral neuropathy.[oxfordmedicine.com]
High Fever
  • Meningitis is marked by headache, high fever, and neck stiffness. Encephalitis causes these symptoms but may progress to stupor (sleepiness), disorientation, hallucinations, paralysis, coma, tremors, convulsions, and rarely death.[medicinenet.com]
Vomiting
  • People with epilepsy can also die from problems that occur during or after a seizure, such as inhaling vomit. This problem can be prevented if the person is turned onto one side as soon as possible.[epilepsy.com]
  • Excruciating headache often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, and hypersensitivity to stimuli. Etiology: Idiopathic.[quizlet.com]
  • Fever, vomiting, and a stiff neck are all symptoms of meningitis. A chronic, often debilitating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches, often in association with a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Of those, most only have mild symptoms similar to those of the flu, such as headache, body aches, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash.[medicinenet.com]
  • It has symptoms similar to meningitis, including intense head pain, locked neck, seizures, and vomiting.[wikihow.com]
Nausea
  • Excruciating headache often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, and hypersensitivity to stimuli. Etiology: Idiopathic.[quizlet.com]
  • Symptoms of this disease include headache, neck pain, drowsiness, nausea, and fever. If caused by the West Nile virus, it may be lethal to humans, as well as birds and horses.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Severe nausea or vomiting. Seizures can also cause sudden changes in consciousness, feeling (sensation), emotion, or thought. Abnormal body movements, such as muscle twitching, may or may not be present.[healthlinkbc.ca]
  • Medicines taken to control nausea. Medicines used to treat Parkinson's disease, restless legs syndrome, and other nervous system problems. Seek Care Now Based on your answers, you may need care right away.[cigna.com]
Loss of Appetite
  • Many patients also experience fever, malaise (general bodily discomfort), and loss of appetite.[healthcommunities.com]
Diplopia
  • Early in the disease course: tingling and numbness in arms, legs, trunk, and face visual disturbances: double vision (diplopia); partial blindness weakness and clumsiness in leg or hand stiffness and fatigability of limbs minor gait disturbances vertigo[quizlet.com]
Headache
  • Cluster Headache -unilateral vascular headache of short duration that reoccurs for short periods of time. Migraine Headache :-Excruciating headache often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, and hypersensitivity to stimuli.[quizlet.com]
  • Other symptoms include morning headaches, snoring and bad dreams.[aapmr.org]
  • The involvement of these projections does also help to understand neurological, cognitive and emotional disturbances that often accompany headache in some patients.[link.springer.com]
  • However, if there is a large cyst, symptoms may include headache, seizures, ataxia (lack of muscle control), hemiparesis, and several others.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • "Because pain pathways throughout the body are amplified in fibromyalgia patients, pain can occur anywhere, so chronic headaches, visceral pain and sensory hyper-responsiveness are common in people with this painful condition," said Clauw.[news-medical.net]
Seizure
  • Epilepsy is a seizure disorder caused by neurological damage that is irreversible. Types of Seizures: Generalized Seizures - result from discharges in both cerebral hemispheres. These are sometimes referred to as petit mal and grand mal seizures.[quizlet.com]
  • […] long seizures, or repeated or clusters of seizures.[epilepsy.com]
  • Epileptic seizures may occur in recovering patients as a consequence of brain surgery.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Problems with brain functioning Learning difficulties Behavioral issues Speech and language delays Movement disorders Seizures Sensory processing problems Autism Is a Complex Disorder of the Central Nervous System The nervous system is a complicated network[autism.lovetoknow.com]
  • The typical patient presents with fevers, seizures, meningitis like stiffness of the neck, and psychotic or bizarre behavior. Brain MRI may demonstrate multiple or single areas with infarcts.[lupusinternational.com]
Dysarthria
  • Expressive aphasia differs from dysarthria, which is typified by a patient's inability to properly move the muscles of the tongue and mouth to produce speech.[ranker.com]
  • Dysarthria, dysmorphic facial appearance, and lack of facial expression can result in subjects with mild cognitive impairment appearing more markedly affected than is accurate.[myotonic.org]
  • The clinical consequences of aceruloplasminemia include dystonia, abnormal gait, dysarthria, and dementia. ALZHEIMER DISEASE Progressive cognitive impairments are characteristic in the dementia of Alzheimer disease.[ajcn.nutrition.org]
  • These can include: Unsteady gait and shaky movement of the limbs (ataxia) Rapid involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus) Defects in speech pronunciation (dysarthria) Spastic weakness and retrobulbar neuritis ( inflammation of the optic nerve) Myalgic[ivyroses.com]
  • […] is muscular weakness and atrophy - the progression is asymmetric - muscle cramps are common and may precede weakness Later: upper motor neurons become involved and there are i. fasciculations ii. spasticity iii. hyperactive deep tendon reflexes iv. dysarthria[quizlet.com]
Dystonia
  • Movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, and essential tremor are central nervous system conditions.[neuromodulation.com]
  • Chorea can be severe or may be replaced by other movement symptoms, including rigidity, dystonia, and bradykinesia. During this stage, many people enter into a Long Term Care facility, which can provide 24/7 care.[web.archive.org]
  • Copper accumulation in the basal ganglia leads to Parkinsonian symptoms, including tremors and dystonia. Indeed, Wilson disease may properly be classified as a movement disorder.[ajcn.nutrition.org]
Apraxia
  • Abstract We report a case of a rapidly progressive central nervous system disorder, in which the outstanding clinical features were ocular motor apraxia and a pallidal posture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Expressive aphasia also differs from apraxia of speech which is a motor disorder characterized by an inability to create and sequence motor plans for speech. Comprehension is typically only mildly to moderately impaired in expressive aphasia.[ranker.com]
  • Therefore, mild anomia (trouble finding nouns) and constructional apraxia are also common early signs.[dartmouth.edu]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • Non-motor symptoms observed most often include: abnormal vegetative functions (e.g. constipation, urinary disorders, sexual dysfunction, skin disorders and perspiration), smell, sleep, mood (depression) and cognitive function disorders, fatigue and pain[zambonpharma.com]
Urinary Incontinence
  • Macrocephaly and ADHD are common among children, while presenile dementia, hydrocephalus (an abnormality of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid), and urinary incontinence are symptoms for elderly patients (65 and older).[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • "The greatest benefit is improved function, which should be the main treatment goal for any chronic pain condition.[news-medical.net]
  • The delivery of drugs to central nervous system (CNS) is a challenge in the treatment of neurological disorders.[globenewswire.com]
  • Treatment: massage treatment for cerebral palsy is spastic paralysis treatment. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's Disease) CNS Motor Disorders Etiology: Idiopathic.[quizlet.com]
  • Virology: Research and Treatment about the journal submit your research Indexing: DOAJ, EBSCO, PubMed Central (PMC) and more .[insights.sagepub.com]
  • Communication may be possible with blinking eye movements Is there any treatment? There is no cure for locked-in syndrome, nor is there a standard course of treatment.[web.archive.org]

Prognosis

  • What is the prognosis of West Nile virus infection? Since 80% of people who get infected never have any symptoms or signs, the overall prognosis (or likelihood of full recovery) is excellent.[medicinenet.com]
  • Prognosis: 50% of patients die within first 3 years 20% live 5 years 10% live 10 years Occasionally, a patient will survive as long as 30 years.[quizlet.com]
  • If there is an AIDS-related tumor in the brain or spinal cord, radiation therapy or steroids may be helpful, although the prognosis is poor.[healthcommunities.com]

Etiology

  • The etiology remains unknown except for the possibility of post-influenza immunization encephalopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although its causation has for some time been ascribed to ‘slow viruses,’ the etiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is currently thought to be due to prions, small proteinaceous infectious particles that have genetic encoding.[sophiararebooks.com]
  • […] cerebrospinal fluid chemical synthesis chemically induced chemistry classification complications congenital cytology diagnosis diagnostic imaging diet therapy drug effects drug therapy economics education embryology enzymology epidemiology ethnology etiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, we are still left with a large number of progressive diseases of unknown etiology, and their classification is based on pathologic and clinical findings.[dartmouth.edu]

Epidemiology

  • Clinical and epidemiological data previously reported inverse comorbidities for these complex disorders, according to population studies assessing the Cancer risks among patients with CNS disorders [8] – [17].[journals.plos.org]
  • Learn about the impacts that child poverty has on the developing brain with data from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and public health epidemiology.[brainfacts.org]
  • […] biosynthesis blood blood supply cerebrospinal fluid chemical synthesis chemically induced chemistry classification complications congenital cytology diagnosis diagnostic imaging diet therapy drug effects drug therapy economics education embryology enzymology epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiologic and a few prospective studies suggest that there may be some element of inflammation in the condition and some have suggested excess oxidation as a contributing factor.[dartmouth.edu]
  • Epidemiology Race No racial predilection exists for CNS causes of vertigo. Sex Men and women are affected differently by different causes of CNS vertigo.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Objective: The goal of this study is to define the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of disability in immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) and to distinguish these from physiological (and often beneficial[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Pathophysiology The sensation of balance is the result of appropriate information detected by the vestibular, ocular, and proprioceptive sensory receptors that is then properly integrated within the cerebellum and brain stem.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology: The loss of dopamine leads to loss of inhibition from the basal ganglia. This loss of inhibition leads to unchecked excitation from areas that control movements. Signs and symptoms: 1.[quizlet.com]
  • As time passes, it is quite likely that the specific biochemical and pathophysiological processes underpinning many of these diseases will be elucidated and their classifications will change.[dartmouth.edu]
  • The pathophysiological significance of these abnormalities is controversial, so at present the primary importance is to recognize that they are common in myotonic dystrophy in order to avoid misdiagnosis.[myotonic.org]

Prevention

  • These results suggest that postural strategy training with the PTAR may contribute to fall prevention of patients with a balance disorder. Copyright 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some vitamins and antioxidants may limit or prevent damage to nerves. Early research suggests benefit for such as vitamins C, D, glutathione and alpha lipoic acid. Dr.[alt-med.org]
  • Metabolic defects prevent the body from properly breaking down food to create energy.[kidshealth.org]
  • The Epilepsy Foundation has established the SUDEP Institute to: Spread the word about death in epilepsy Help people learn ways to prevent it Get help to people who have lost a loved one to SUDEP Speed up research on the causes and prevention of SUDEP[epilepsy.com]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile, a Pregnancy Danger?" Feb. 28, 2004.. United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile Virus." Aug. 8, 2011.. United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[medicinenet.com]

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