Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), also referred to as osmotic demyelination syndrome, is a demyelinating disease that is caused by significant damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the middle of the brainstem, specifically the pons region.


Presentation

The clinical presentation of central pontine myelinolysis is variable. Patients may be asymptomatic, or have mild to severe symptoms, including rapid onset of pseudobulbar symptoms (e.g., difficulty swallowing or speaking), paraparesis, quadriparesis, confusion, psychiatric symptoms (e.g., delirium or hallucinations), "locked-in syndrome," in which there is paralysis of the lower limb musculature and cranial nerves resulting in a lack of expressive communication ability, although the intellectual activity is unaffected [1].

The symptoms may appear with a biphasic course, consisting of seizures and/or encephalopathy, with a period of improvement, followed by deterioration consisting of spastic quadriplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and occasionally oculomotor abnormalities such as horizontal gaze paralysis [2].

High Fever
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old Japanese woman presented to a neighborhood clinic with persistent high fever, edema, and general weakness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Progressive Dysphagia
  • Case Report A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with complaints of progressive dysphagia and dysarthria for a week, and this occurred just 2 days after he stopped drinking. His medical history was unremarkable.[dx.doi.org]
Emotional Lability
  • Case 1: 24-year-old male, known alcoholic, was admitted with left hemiplegia and features of bulbar and pseudobulbar palsy with dysphagia, dysarthria and emotional lability.[endocrine-abstracts.org]
  • lability (pseudobulbar affect), with other more variable neurological features associated with brainstem damage.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Neurological examination was significant for emotional lability, dysarthria, and gait ataxia with bilateral dysmetria. Motor examination showed normal tone, power grade 5 in all limbs, absent knee and ankle jerks, and flexor plantar response.[smj.org.sg]
Dysarthria
  • There was little improvement in the dysarthria or psychiatric symptoms in the first month.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He only displayed bulbar palsy and dysarthria.[dx.doi.org]
  • English central pontine myelinolysis demyelination disease that is characterized by severe damage to the myelin sheath of the pons' nerve cells and has symptom acute paralysis, has symptom dysphagia, and has symptom dysarthria central pontine myelinolysis[wikidata.org]
Lethargy
  • A 26-year-old man with a history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with dysarthria, lethargy, and horizontal nystagmus.[dx.doi.org]
  • Common symptoms included lethargy and dysarthria. Five of the 6 patients had chronic alcoholism. All had improvements in their clinical conditions upon hospital discharge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute symptoms Paralysis (can affect two or all of the limbs) Difficulties swallowing (dysphagia) and speaking (dysarthria) Problems with the vision (diplopia) Loss of consciousness Confusion and delirium Balance problems (unstable gait) Hallucinations Lethargy[mddk.com]
  • Our patient presented initially with the symptoms of CPM, exhibiting lethargy, quadriparesis, and dysarthria.[movementdisorders.org]
Spastic Quadriplegia
  • The symptoms may appear with a biphasic course, consisting of seizures and/or encephalopathy, with a period of improvement, followed by deterioration consisting of spastic quadriplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and occasionally oculomotor abnormalities[symptoma.com]
  • Key features of the neurologic exam include confusion, horizontal gaze paralysis, and spastic quadriplegia.[emedicine.com]
  • They published their findings in 1958, observing that patients who suffered from alcoholism or malnutrition developed spastic quadriplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, and varying degrees of encephalopathy or coma from acute, noninflammatory demyelination that[coolmristuff.wordpress.com]
  • It is characterized by spastic quadriplegia, pseudobulbar palsy and encephalopathy. It is observed in patients with severe hyponatremia, particularly when the hyponatremia is corrected too rapidly.[fpnotebook.com]
Stupor
  • Large lesions cause spastic bulbar paralysis, quadriplegia, stupor or coma, or the locked-in syndrome, developing in a background of severe electrolyte abnormalities.[neuropathology-web.org]
  • Clinical manifestations of CPM include stupor and spastic tetraparesis[ 51 ]. Neuroimaging studies typically show area of T2 hyperintensity on MRI imaging in central pons[ 19 ].[dx.doi.org]
Altered Mental Status
  • Although her bicarbonate deficit was 365 mEq, we treated her with an overdose of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, 480 mEq for 24 hours, due to the severity of her acidemia and her altered mental status.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some of the signs and symptoms include: Difficulty in speaking Difficulty in swallowing Double vison Muscle cramps Convulsions Hallucinations Poor reflexes Paralysis of various parts of the body Loss of sensation in various parts of the body Altered mental[dovemed.com]
  • Two weeks later, the patient was readmitted for persistent HG, psychomotor retardation, intention tremor, fluctuating altered mental status, and incontinence of 2-day duration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Workup of central pontine myelinolysis consists of a history, physical exam, laboratory testing, and imaging. Patients with a history of rapid correction of severe hyponatremia (plasma serum level <120 mq/L persisting for two or more days, that has been corrected at a rate greater than 8 mq/L in 48 hours), patients with liver disease or alcohol abuse should be considered at high-risk for central pontine myelinolysis [3] [4]. During the neurologic exam, the clinician should assess signs of confusion, occulomotor dysfunction (e.g., horizontal gaze paralysis), impaired speech or swallowing, and signs of spastic quadriplegia such as limb weakness, increased tonicity of the limb muscles, and hyperreflexia). The primary laboratory test consists of a chemistry panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, glucose, creatine, and BUN). Liver function test can also be performed when clinically indicated.

Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to aid in the diagnosis [5] [6] [7] [8]. Imaging test results may be normal during the early stages of the disease (through two weeks); after this period imaging abnormalities indicative of central pontine myelinolysis emerge. MRI is more sensitive for diagnosing abnormalities than CT scan [9] [10]. Comparison of changes between earlier and later CT or MRI scans is also useful.

CT scan images are prone to streak artifact in the region of the pons (and thus not as sensitive as MRI). CT scan may reveal low attenuation crossing the midline in the lower pons.

On T2-weighted MRI scans, areas of demyelination are marked by hyperintense and bright areas. T1 signal may be mildly or moderately hypointense; fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal will usually appear hyperintense. A classic trident shaped pattern is indicative of ventrolateral pons, corticospinal tract, and tegmentum sparing. Extrapontine lesions are usually bilateral; they are commonly found on the cerebellar peduncles, globus pallidus, lateral geniculate body, thalamus, and putamen [5] [11].

Cerebral spinal fluid evaluation may show an elevated opening pressure, mononuclear pleocytosis, or an elevated protein level.

Few advanced neuroimaging studies like positron emission tomography have been studied for its efficacy in the diagnosis of central pontine myelinosis; studies have shown a high FDG-18 uptake initially, followed by decreased uptake in affected regions [12].

Electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to supplement imaging results, particularly when neuroimaging is not definitive. EEG usually reveals diffuse bihemispheric slowing in patients with central pontine myelinolysis.

Treatment

  • There is no consensus for its treatment. CASE: We describe here a case of CPM that occurred in a young patient after correction of hyponatremia, its treatment by intravenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and its outcome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aetiology is not clear, and there is no evidence regarding the optimal treatment or prognosis of CPM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The development of CPM as a result of rapid shifts in plasma osmolality during the treatment of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) has hitherto been described in only one case.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because both MBD and CPM can have fatal outcomes, early recognition and treatment can result in a better prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To report 2 cases of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) post liver transplantation in which treatment with plasmapheresis and intravenous immune globulin improved expected neurologic outcome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • In general, this neurological disorder has a fatal prognosis. We observed a 30-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse but without evidence of hyponatremia, who developed severe pontine central myelinolysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics, the management, the long-term prognosis, and the prognostic factors in central or extrapontine myelinolysis.[doi.org]
  • We cannot explain the reason and mechanism of the poor prognosis in this case, although we could predict a poor prognosis from the serial MRIs.[alcalc.oxfordjournals.org]

Etiology

  • Abstract The etiology of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is usually related to rapid correction of hyponatremia and alcoholism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To review central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) and describe the clinical features, etiologic factors, and clinical outcomes of 6 patients diagnosed with CPM or ODS. A retrospective case series.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Studies carried out 25-30 years ago established that the principal etiological factor was the rapid correction of hyponatremia resulting in osmotic stress.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of central pontine myelinolysis is multifactorial, and special attention should be given to the group of patients at greater risk, such as those with sudden changes in the plasma levels of sodium, liver transplantation, chronic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although the precise etiology and pathogenesis of CPM is largely unknown, a growing literature implicates a possible role of immunosuppressive agents, such as Cyclosporine (incidence 30%) on its development.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology The exact incidence of central pontine myelinolysis is unknown. A study by Singh et al demonstrated that central pontine myelinolysis was present in 29% of postmortem examinations of liver transplant patients.[emedicine.com]
  • Sandrine Leroy 1 Department of Epidemiology of Emerging Diseases Unit, Insititut Pasteur, Paris, France Ariel Gout 2 Department of Neuropediatrics, Bicetre Hospital, Paris, France , Beatrice Husson 3 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Bicêtre University[doi.org]
  • Victor M, Laureno R: Neurologic complications of alcohol abuse: Epidemiologic aspects; in Schoenberg BS (ed): Advances in Neurology. New York, Raven Press, 1978, vol 19, pp 603–617. Berlit P: Die zentrale pontine Myelinolyse.[doi.org]
  • Definition / general Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis are complications of treatment of marked hyponatremia Terminology Also termed osmotic demyelination syndrome Epidemiology Occurs most commonly in setting of chronic alcoholism ( 40% of[pathologyoutlines.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • It should be based on underlying pathophysiology, especially the duration of hyponatraemia (acute vs. chronic) and the presence or absence of severe neurologic symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We also discuss factors that may contribute to the development of central pontine myelinolysis after orthotopic liver transplant and its pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The objective of this report was to present a case of central pontine myelinolysis diagnosed after liver transplantation and to discuss its pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is established that the pathophysiological reaction to irradiation in the normal brain tissue is necrosis, demyelinization, and diffuse changes due to wall thickening of the vascular structures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The morbidity and mortality of CPM/EPM has been greatly reduced by recognition of pre-disposing conditions, increased understanding of the pathophysiology, intensive treatment, and rapid diagnosis and monitoring with advanced neuroimaging.[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • The appropriate administration of thiamine may prevent poor outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Both share the diagnostic methods, and their prevention and therapy are the same. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are unclear and will be discussed. However, almost all cases of CPM are related to severe diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention Slow correction of electrolytic imbalance. central pontine myelinolysis Neuropathology A condition characterized by softening of the base of the brain at the pons with damage to the myelin sheath, related to aggressive correction of hyponatremia[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prevention and Treatment The most certain way to prevent central pontine myelinolysis is to correct the reduced sodium levels in a gradual manner.[mddk.com]
  • It is a preventable injury often caused by a physician’s negligence when he does not follow the standard protocols that mandate slowly increasing the sodium level.[r-klaw.com]

References

Article

  1. Vermetten E, Rutten SJ, Boon PJ, Hofman PA, Leentjens AF. Neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological manifestations of central pontine myelinolysis. Gen Hosp Psychaitry. 1999;21:296-302.
  2. Martin RJ. Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis: the osmotic demyelination syndromes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(suppl 3): iii22-iii28.
  3. Verbalis JG, Martinez AJ. Neurological and neuropathological sequelae of correction of chronic hyponatremia. Kidney Int. 1991;39:1274-82.
  4. Laureno R. Central pontine myelinolysis following rapid correction of hyponatremia. Ann Neurol. 1983;13:232-42
  5. Chua GC , Sitoh YY , Lim CC , et al. MRI findings in osmotic myelinolysis. Clin Radiol. 2002; 57:800–806
  6. Kumar S , Fowler M , Gonzalez-Toldeo E , et al. Central pontine myelinolysis, an update. Neurol Res. 2006; 28:360–6.
  7. Venkatanarasimha N , Mukonoweshuro W , Jones J. AJR teaching file: symmetric demyelination. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008; 191:S34–S36
  8. Howard SA , Barletta JA , Klufas RA , et al. Best cases from the AFIP: osmotic demyelination syndrome. Radiographics. 2009; 29:933–8.
  9. Karp BI, Laureno R. Pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis: a neurologic disorder following rapid correction of hyponatremia. Medicine (Baltimore). 1993;72:359.
  10. Brunner JE, Redmond JM, Haggar AM, Kruger DF, Elias SB. Central pontine myelinolysis and pontine lesions after rapid correction of hyponatremia: a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study. Ann Neurol. 1990;27:61.
  11. Roh JK , Nam H , Lee MC. A case of central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis with early hypermetabolism on 18FDG-PET scan. J Korean Med Sci 1998; 13:99–102.
  12. Juergenson I, Zappini F, Fiaschi A, Tonin P, Bonetti B. Teaching neuroimages: neuroradiologic findings in pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis: clue for the pathogenesis? Neurology. 2012;78:e1-2.

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!
Last updated: 2018-06-21 19:56