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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy Side Effects


Presentation

  • The emergency physician should pay special attention cancer patients presenting with suspicious rashes and carefully review their medications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three women presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, 2 women presented with respiratory complaints, and 1 woman was asymptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a patient with metastatic melanoma who had a complete response to second line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we describe a case of cardiac EMP that presented clinically as a congestive heart failure exacerbation in a patient with relapsed and refractory IgG lambda MM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our patient's ESS eruption presented with a variety of morphologies, thus multiple skin biopsies were taken to determine the possible diagnosis(es).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Anemia
  • Despite identified limitations in the grading and reporting of treatment-related anemia, the results confirm a relatively high incidence of mild-to-moderate anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Compared with chemotherapy alone, SFI plus chemotherapy had lower 3/4 grade toxicity for leukopenia (risk ratio [RR] 0.34; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] 0.21-0.55), thrombocytopenia (RR 0.36; 95% CI 0.19-0.71), anemia (RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.16-0.99),[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of the guidelines is to operationalize the evaluation and treatment of anemia in cancer patients and to enable patients and clinicians to evaluate treatment options in the context of risks and benefits.[doi.org]
  • The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were hematologic toxicities, including leukopenia (66%), neutropenia (69%), thrombocytopenia (9%) and anemia (22%). Febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (9%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, for certain grade 3 and above toxicity, the results of the NMA reflected certain NCT regimens can reduce toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) to a minimum, such as NP for anemia, mucositis, and thrombocytopenia, paclitaxel, epirubicin, and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hodgkin's Disease
  • The ability of combination chemotherapy to cure acute childhood leukemia and advanced Hodgkin's disease in the 1960s and early 1970s overcame the prevailing pessimism about the ability of drugs to cure advanced cancers, facilitated the study of adjuvant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other tumours reported at increased incidence, in particular among Hodgkin's disease patients, for whom a carcinogenic effect of chemotherapy seems plausible, are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer.[informahealthcare.com]
  • Work on L1210, childhood acute leukemia, and Hodgkin's disease was going on in parallel.[doi.org]
  • The periwinkle plant derivatives vincristine and vinblastine have been used effectively in treating Hodgkin’s disease and leukemia. The alkylating agents and antimetabolites have serious drawbacks.[britannica.com]
  • I was impressed by the then-emerging cures for Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia and some other relatively rare cancers. At the same time, I began to learn how skeptical many good scientists were about chemotherapy's future.[amazon.com]
Refractory Anemia
  • DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with MDS refractory anemia with excess of blast II and was classified as very high risk according to the revised international prognostic scoring system.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Loss of Appetite
  • Chemotherapy commonly causes nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, and low blood cell counts that lead to anemia and increased risk of infections.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Other side effects of docetaxel include low platelets which can result in bleeding (1%), anemia (5%), reduced heart function (10%), hair loss (65%), diarrhea (32%), nail changes (30%), loss of appetite (20%), shortness of breath (15%), and fluid retention[pcf.org]
  • After treatment with chemotherapy, you may lose your hair and have other side effects, such as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or mouth sores.[northshore.org]
  • Common side effects of chemo are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and temporary hair loss . Someone people also might feel tired, bruise easily, and catch infections easily.[kidshealth.org]
  • Possible Side Effects Side effects of chemotherapy can include: Nausea Vomiting Loss of appetite Malnutrition Hair loss Bleeding or damage to the heart, liver or kidneys Chemotherapy can weaken the body's immune system.[cedars-sinai.edu]
Sore Mouth
  • This can cause a range of unpleasant side effects, such as: feeling tired most of the time feeling sick and vomiting hair loss an increased risk of picking up infections a sore mouth dry, sore or itchy skin diarrhoea or constipation Many of these side[nhs.uk]
  • These tips can help prevent and treat a sore mouth: Keep your mouth moist. Drink a lot of water Suck ice chips Use sugarless gum or sugar-free hard candy Use a saliva substitute to help moisten your mouth Clean your mouth, tongue, and gums.[colgate.com]
  • Eating a healthy diet and keeping your mouth and teeth clean can lower your risk of mouth sores. Mouth sores usually go away completely when treatment ends. Learn more about managing mucositis and oral health during cancer treatment . Diarrhea.[cancer.net]
  • See our FAQ below on hair loss have a sore mouth, mouth ulcers or changes in your sense of taste get numbness or ‘pins and needles’ in your hands and feet feel out of breath lose your appetite notice changes to your skin – your skin may become dry or[bupa.co.uk]
Alopecia
  • There were no differences between men and women with regard to body image in respect of degree of alopecia, but the body image of the male and female patients who had partial or complete alopecia was lower than that in patients who had no alopecia; psychological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a distressing side effect common to certain treatment regimens in oncology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Few dermatologic conditions carry as much emotional distress as chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). The prerequisite for successful development of strategies for CIA prevention is the understanding of the pathobiology of CIA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hair follicles have cells that can be affected by chemo, leading to hair loss, also called alopecia. Cells lining your stomach can also be affected by chemo. This can cause vomiting and diarrhea, and may be associated with nausea.[chemotherapy.com]
Amenorrhea
  • After ABVD or 4–6 cycles of CHOP the risk of permanent amenorrhea has been reported to be below 20% [11] Lee SJ, Schover LR, Partridge AH, Patrizio P, Wallace WH, Hagerty K, et al.[doi.org]
  • Boumpas DT, Austin HA 3rd, Vaughan EM, Yarboro CH, Klippel JH, Balow JE (1993) Risk for sustained amenorrhea in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving intermittent pulse cyclophosphamide therapy.[doi.org]
  • Two FSH levels in the menopausal range measured at least one month apart and associated with amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and low estradiol levels are strongly suggestive of ovarian failure.[medscape.com]
  • Disease Regimen % Low Sperm Count Hodgkin's MOPP 85% Hodgkin's ABVD 0 Testes Cancer Cisplatin, vinblastine, bleomycin 14-28% Sarcoma Doxorubicin Cyclophosphamide 65% Disease Regimen % Amenorrhea Ovarian Cancer Cisplatin, Vincristine, methotrexate, etoposide[cancersupportivecare.com]
  • […] particularly in males) an alteration of reproductive functions, with: azoospermia (frequency up to 100% of cases, sometimes reversible after therapy termination; it imposes a beforehand semen collection and preservation in young patients); secondary amenorrhea[medichub.ro]
Secondary Amenorrhea
  • amenorrhea (it occurs at 3-4 months after the chemotherapy; recovery is variable and it depends on the age when the cytostatic treatment was started – in young women it can reach over 50% of cases).[medichub.ro]
  • Secondary amenorrhea after Hodgkin's lymphoma is influenced by age at treatment, stage of disease, chemotherapy regimen, and the use of oral contraceptives during therapy: A report from the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group.[doi.org]

Workup

  • This study changed the workup of all people with advanced gastric cancer since all people with advanced gastric cancer must now undergo HER‐2 testing before the initiation of any chemotherapy and, in the absence of contraindications, be treated with trastuzumab[doi.org]

Treatment

  • One patient underwent a re-biopsy after chemotherapy and nivolumab treatment, and the other two cases underwent a re-biopsy after chemotherapy, radiotherapy and nivolumab treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many factors influence the treatment decision, including tumor characteristics, previous treatment and tumor burden in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She received oral apatinib treatment since September 30, 2017. Due to related adverse reactions, the patient could not tolerate the treatment, and the subsequent reduction therapy was given.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN); microsurgery treatment nerve decompression; peripheral nerve compression; radiation brachial plexopathy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is little evidence of effective treatment nor guidelines for treatment of esophageal MEC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Reduced drug sensitivity may cause the failure of chemotherapy and affect the prognosis of patients with cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Our NMA showed that certain cisplatin-based NCT regimens improved the prognosis of patients with NPC and reduced the toxicity of CRT. However, in view of survival rate and response rate, the best NCT regimen is not entirely consistent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis and 10 year survival less than 10%. We present a patient with metastatic melanoma who had a complete response to second line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The therapy of gastric MANEC is based on surgical operation, and adjuvant chemotherapy program has an important influence on its prognosis. Therefore, further studying the effectiveness of XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric MANEC is necessary.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It has malignant clinical and histological features, remarkably rapid progression, atypical pathology like squamous cell carcinoma, and a poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • We review the literature for reported cases of transverse melanonychia and summarize suspected etiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Laboratory and instrumental examinations performed did not suggest any specific etiology. After 15 days of medical support, the patient presented a complete cardiac function and clinical recovery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of this risk is not well understood. This pilot study explores the impact of platinum-based chemotherapy on endothelial function. Methods: Testicular cancer survivors t -tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many studies of congenital malformations had small sample sizes (fewer than 20 exposed cases, resulting in several limitations, such as limited ability to adjust for confounding factors; grouping of anomalies that may have different etiologies; and wide[theoncologypharmacist.com]
  • Roy Freeman , Not all neuropathy in diabetes is of diabetic etiology: Differential diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy , Current Diabetes Reports , 10.1007/s11892-009-0069-7 , 9 , 6 , (423-431) , (2009) . A. A. Argyriou, G. Iconomou and H. P.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Credit: The journal Pain There have been no epidemiologic studies to determine what percentage of chemotherapy patients is affected.[doi.org]
  • This is illustrated by molecular epidemiologic studies of environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines.[doi.org]
  • Talley NJ (2004) Definitions, epidemiology, and impact of chronic constipation. Rev Gastroenterol Dis 4:S3–S10 CrossRef Google Scholar 76. Viele CS (2003) Overview of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • CONCLUSIONS: This rare event stresses our inability to correctly predict the risk of a patient developing cardiotoxicity and also highlights the need to improve the knowledge of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; in fact, it suggests a possible[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Read NW, Timms JM (1986) Defecation and the pathophysiology of constipation. Clin Gastroenterol 15:937–965 PubMed Google Scholar 56.[doi.org]
  • Malnutrition and cachexia in ovarian cancer patients: pathophysiology and management. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(4B):2941–2947. Google Scholar 15. Garcia-Luna PP, Parejo Campos J, Pereira Cunill JL.[doi.org]
  • […] suggest any specific effect of MTX on T cell number or function in patients with RA, MTX does exert clear inhibitory effects in vivo and in vitro on neutrophils and particularly on monocytes/macrophages that are believed to have a central role in RA pathophysiology[doi.org]
  • Saykin AJ, Ahles TA, McDonald BC: Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cognitive disorders: Neuropsychological, pathophysiological and neuroimaging perspectives. Sem Clin Neuropsychiatry 8:: 201, 2003 –216, Medline, Google Scholar 23.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Abstract BSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of melatonin in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity at the preclinical level.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The objective of this review was to establish whether preventive antibiotic therapy (prophylaxis) before the development of fever prevents illness and death in people with a low white blood cell count after chemotherapy and to assess whether certain types[doi.org]
  • Ways to Prevent or Manage Problems Related to Nerve Changes You may be advised to take these steps: Prevent falls. Have someone help you prevent falls around the house. Move rugs out of your path so you will not trip on them.[cancer.gov]
  • The role of these medications in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is not well established.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Among the few agents that have been evaluated so far in humans, AS101 and minoxidil were able to reduce the severity or shorten the duration of CIA, but could not prevent CIA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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