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Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis

Mucositis Following Chemotherapy


Presentation

  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of low-power laser on the prevention of mucositis, xerostomia and pain as a result of chemotherapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Unfortunately, we can conclude that the interventions presented in this thesis did not lead to a decrease in the severity of mucositis in rats.[rug.nl]
  • In patients undergoing chemotherapy at standard doses, oral mucositis generally presents as grades 1 and 2 rather than grades 3 and 4.[touchoncology.com]
Asymptomatic
  • Strategies to Enhance Access to Health Care 88 Dynamics of Cancer Prevention 95 Cancer Prevention and Public Policy 108 Screening and Detection for Asymptomatic Individuals 115 Oral Communication of Risk 122 Jennifer T Loud RN CRNP DNP Sadie P Hutson[books.google.com]
  • Stage 1: Exposed and necrotic bone in patients who are asymptomatic and have no evidence of infection.[cancer.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • Symptoms include mouth pain and ulceration, esophagitis, abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. It is associated with increased infections and occasional mortality, and its palliation is very expensive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • GIM manifests as nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhoea in recipients of chemotherapy. GIM is a major complication occurring in approximately 80% of patients receiving 5-flurouracil treatment.[jstage.jst.go.jp]
  • Children suffering from mucositis have symptoms like nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, leading to a decreased nutritional intake and a higher susceptibility to develop a bacteremia or sepsis.[rug.nl]
  • Children suffering from mucositis have symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, leading to a decreased nutritional intake and a higher susceptibility to develop bacteremia or sepsis.[umcg.nl]
Sore Mouth
  • mouth mouth ulcers difficulty swallowing, eating or talking a dry mouth and lips diarrhoea, bleeding from your bottom, or pain when pooing These are symptoms of mucositis.[nhs.uk]
  • More than a sore mouth: patients’ experience of oral mucositis. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2002;29:1051-1057. 5. Elting LS, Cooksley C, Chambers M, et al. The burdens of cancer therapy: clinical and economic outcomes of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.[theoncologypharmacist.com]
  • What causes mouth sores? Mouth sores are a common side effect of radiation and certain chemotherapy drugs. Chemotherapy and radiation kill rapidly dividing cells, a hallmark characteristic of some cancers.[news.cancerconnect.com]
Aphthous Stomatitis
Fear
  • When the patient experienced 13 days of mucositis after chemotherapy treatment days 1 to 4, he refused further treatment out of fear of developing mucositis, despite several patient–provider discussions.[theoncologypharmacist.com]

Workup

  • […] oral mucositis are the following: World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Toxicity Scale: Combines both objective and functional elements into a single score National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC): Scores functional elements only See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Accurate and early diagnostic workup. Effective preventative and therapeutic strategies. An individual approach geared to unique patient characteristics.[cancer.gov]
Pseudomonas
  • The significance of bacterial pathogens in surveillance cultures is more difficult to sort out except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which almost always predicts for eventual systemic infection, especially bacteraemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria species, and Escherichia coli, remain of concern.[cancer.gov]
Staphylococcus Aureus
  • Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds. J Roy Soc Med 1999 ; 92 : 283 –5 15 Sela, MO, Shapira, L, Grizim, I.[cambridge.org]
  • Denture-soaking cups can readily become colonized with a variety of pathogens, including P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Enterobacter species, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, and Candida albicans.[cancer.gov]

Treatment

  • Although treatment is available for a small subset of patients suffering from mucositis, the majority rely on pain relief as their only treatment option.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is a self-limiting condition.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Although breast cancer prognosis has improved dramatically in the last 20 years, a significant number of patients will present the evolution of the disease and most of them will die of this malignancy.[medichub.ro]
  • Dentition that exhibits poor prognosis and is within high-dose fields should be extracted before radiation therapy begins.[cancer.gov]

Etiology

  • Cranial Irradiation /adverse effects; Double-Blind Method; Head and Neck Neoplasms /complications /drug therapy /radiotherapy; Humans; Low-Level Light Therapy /methods /utilization; Prospective Studies; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Stomatitis /etiology[crd.york.ac.uk]
  • Oral mucositis occurs independently of oral mucosal infections of viral and fungal etiology, but it may be exacerbated by such concomitant infections.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • GELCLAIR is a bioadherent oral gel that provides effective pain relief by adhering to the mucosal surface of the mouth, soothing oral lesions of various etiologies, including: Oral mucositis (OM)/stomatitis Irritation due to oral surgery Traumatic ulcers[gelclair.com]
  • In 2011, the FDA cleared episil oral liquid for the management and relief of pain of oral lesions with various etiologies, including oral mucositis/stomatitis which may be caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • -Oral mucositis occurs independently of oral mucosal infections of viral and fungal etiology, but it may be exacerbated by such concomitant infections.[oralcancerfoundation.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Frequency Some degree of oral mucositis occurs in approximately 40% of patients who receive cancer chemotherapy.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Perspectives on cancer therapy-induced mucosal injury: pathogenesis, measurement, epidemiology, and consequences for patients. Cancer. 2004;100(suppl 9):1995-2025. Peterson DE, Bensadoun R-J, Roila F.[gelclair.com]
  • Sonis ST, Elting LS, Keefe D, et al.: Perspectives on cancer therapy-induced mucosal injury: pathogenesis, measurement, epidemiology, and consequences for patients. Cancer 100 (9 Suppl): 1995-2025, 2004.[cancer.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Therefore, the question arises if the currently used 5-phase pathophysiological model is correct for gastrointestinal mucositis.[rug.nl]
  • According to this five-phase model, the intestinal microbiota plays no role in the pathophysiology of mucositis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because this toxicity clusters with dermatologic toxicities, rather than GI (as is the case with conventional mucositis) toxicities, this suggests that the underlying pathophysiology is likely very different.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Advances in molecular biology have provided greater insight into the pathophysiology of this condition.[touchoncology.com]

Prevention

  • The pathobiology of mucositis is complex, and agents that target mechanisms to prevent mucositis or accelerate healing are in high demand.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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