Edit concept Create issue ticket

Chloroform Poisoning


Presentation

  • Presented is a case of a double homicide involving a 29-year-old male and his 23-year-old fiance. Gas chromatographic methodology and tissue concentrations of chloroform are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The two cases presented here involve deaths that were due to dichloromethane or chloroform poisoning. The dichloromethane and chloroform were determined in biological specimens by headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detector.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical presentation Persons exposed to carbon tetrachloride or chloroform from acute inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion may present with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and confusion.[mhmedical.com]
  • "I'm impressed by the presentation by the defense team," Rudloff said. Referring to Semel, he added, "however, she's not a miracle person. She can't work miracles."[articles.latimes.com]
  • Phosgene can form in chloroform as it is exposed to oxygen and amounts of UV light (although UV light is not always necessary if catalytic contaminants are present). Phosgene has a characteristic odor of cut hay.[earlham.edu]
Fever
  • […] to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform , ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever[sentence.yourdictionary.com]
  • Mary now had a new lover, a man called Natrass, but he died too of Gastric Fever, according to Mary. The local doctor, Dr. Kilburn, became suspicious and in 1873 Mary was brought to Durham Assizes. She was found guilty and hanged at Durham Jail.[historic-uk.com]
  • Clinical interpretation Overdosage with diphenhydramine and other antihistamines may cause drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, headache, nausea, tachycardia, fever, hallucinations and tremor.[who.int]
Vomiting
  • Acute poisoning is associated with headache, altered consciousness, convulsions, respiratory paralysis and disturbances of the autonomic nervous system: dizziness, nausea, and vomiting are common.[cargohandbook.com]
  • Clinical presentation Persons exposed to carbon tetrachloride or chloroform from acute inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion may present with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and confusion.[mhmedical.com]
  • Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, salivation, anorexia, and gastrointestinal irritation. Cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest have been reported.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • High concentrations of the chemical may produce headaches, dizziness, and gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and vomiting. In addition, chloroform has been classified as a probable carcinogen—a chemical that can cause cancer.[owlcation.com]
  • Acids and alkalis can burn the esophagus if they are vomited, and petroleum products can be inhaled into the lungs during vomiting, resulting in pneumonia .[healthofchildren.com]
Nausea
  • Acute poisoning is associated with headache, altered consciousness, convulsions, respiratory paralysis and disturbances of the autonomic nervous system: dizziness, nausea, and vomiting are common.[cargohandbook.com]
  • Clinical presentation Persons exposed to carbon tetrachloride or chloroform from acute inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion may present with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and confusion.[mhmedical.com]
  • --More likely effects of inhaling chloroform are dizziness, nausea, disorientation, headache and possible drunken-like behavior. Longer-term exposure can lead to hallucinations and psychotic episodes.[answers.google.com]
  • High concentrations of the chemical may produce headaches, dizziness, and gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and vomiting. In addition, chloroform has been classified as a probable carcinogen—a chemical that can cause cancer.[owlcation.com]
  • Case presentation Case 1 A 34-year-old woman who had been working in a medical endoscopic device factory for approximately 40 days developed nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
Jaundice
  • The effects observed in the women included jaundice, liver enlargement and tenderness, delirium, coma, and death. Neurological Effects The central nervous system is a major target for chloroform toxicity in humans and in animals.[answers.google.com]
  • There is another case series of 13 jaundice patients exposed to chloroform (400 ppm) inhalation at their workplaces [ 20 ].[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
  • When enlarged liver results from liver disease, it might be accompanied by: Abdominal pain Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes (jaundice) When to see a doctor Make an appointment with your doctor if you have symptoms[mayoclinic.org]
  • Haemolytic anaemia, methaemoglobinaemia, haematuria, jaundice and acute renal failure are further complications. Plasma dapsone concentrations of 10 mg/l or more may be associated with toxicity.[who.int]
Headache
  • Acute poisoning is associated with headache, altered consciousness, convulsions, respiratory paralysis and disturbances of the autonomic nervous system: dizziness, nausea, and vomiting are common.[cargohandbook.com]
  • Clinical presentation Persons exposed to carbon tetrachloride or chloroform from acute inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion may present with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and confusion.[mhmedical.com]
  • Immediately or shortly after exposure to a level of 100 ppm (100,000 ppbv) of chloroform in air, a person may feel tired, dizzy, and have a headache.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • Intial exposure to chloroform can cause headaches, dizziness, and fatigue (as an anesthetic, chloroform depresses the central nervous system).[websleuths.com]
  • --More likely effects of inhaling chloroform are dizziness, nausea, disorientation, headache and possible drunken-like behavior. Longer-term exposure can lead to hallucinations and psychotic episodes.[answers.google.com]
Confusion
  • Clinical presentation Persons exposed to carbon tetrachloride or chloroform from acute inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion may present with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and confusion.[mhmedical.com]
  • Drug overdoses cause a range of symptoms, including excitability, sleepiness, confusion, unconsciousness, rapid heartbeat, convulsions, nausea, and changes in blood pressure.[healthofchildren.com]
  • Clinical interpretation Acute poisoning with chlorates may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, confusion, coma and convulsions.[who.int]
Ataxia
  • Clinical features include ataxia, nausea, vomiting, coma, convulsions, respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias and hepatorenal damage. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.[who.int]
Neglect
  • Cleanroom manufactures may neglect to maintain adequate ventilation amounts of outside air to lessen the associated costs.[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment requires an emetic at once (see Aconite , Treatment) ; and then, as there is no chemical antidote, dashing cold water on the face and chest, and, if it can be obtained, the galvanic battery ; as a last resort, artificial respiration .[chestofbooks.com]
  • Previous reports describe survival after treatment with orally administered NAC, we report the first use of intravenously administered NAC for chloroform ingestion. Acute oral ingestion of chloroform is extremely rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chlorine treatment of drinking water is often necessary to prevent diseases that can be a major cause of illness. Chloroform evaporates quickly. Most of the chloroform that ends up in lakes, streams, or soil evaporates into the air.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • This latter compound may be chlorinated to perchloracetoacrylic chloride (9), from which the corresponding acid (to) is obtained by treatment with water; alkalis hydrolyse the acid to chloroform and dichlormaleic acid (I I).[sentence.yourdictionary.com]
  • Treatment: Hypodermic injection of strychnine, whiskey, or ammonia: enema of strong coffee and whiskey; artificial respiration and oxygen; when swallowed, use stomach lavage. Poisons & Antidotes - Index Botanical.com Home Page[botanical.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The outcome of poisoning varies from complete recovery to death and depends on the type and amount of the poison, the health of the victim, and the speed with which medical care is obtained.[healthofchildren.com]

Epidemiology

  • Aetiological aspects on primary liver cancer with special regard to alcohol, organic solvents and acute intermittent porphyria — An epidemiological investigation. ‎ Seite 283 - Bressac, B., Kew, M., Wands, J., and Ozturk, M. 1991.[books.google.com]
  • However, it is also very unpredictable, making epidemiological analysis very difficult. Therefore, it is still important to focus on individual cases.[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In: Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill; 2013. . Accessed Feb. 5, 2018. Curry MP, et al. Hepatomegaly: Differential diagnosis and evaluation. . Accessed Feb. 5, 2018. Medications.[mayoclinic.org]

Prevention

  • (ERG, 2016) Protective Clothing Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • Every bottle of chloroform should be treated as if it contains phosgene to help prevent exposure, however, testing is possible using test strips or sampling tubes.[earlham.edu]
  • Again, the fear of dangerous results was preventing a development that would have benefitted many.[rcsedlibraryandarchive.wordpress.com]
  • Chlorine treatment of drinking water is often necessary to prevent diseases that can be a major cause of illness. Chloroform evaporates quickly. Most of the chloroform that ends up in lakes, streams, or soil evaporates into the air.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • Deterrence/Prevention Proper labeling and avoiding mixing chemicals facilitate prevention. Household cleaning products should not be mixed. Using proper precautions when handling swimming pool chemicals reduces risks.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!