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Cholinergic Agent

Agents Cholinergic


Presentation

  • METHODS: Presented here are detailed measurements of natural baseline sweat rates across multiple days, confirming a clear need for localized sweat stimulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There are two types: muscarinic receptors, present primarily on autonomic effector cells, and nicotinic receptors, present primarily on autonomic ganglion cells and on the motor end plates of skeletal muscle.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • The inclusion of a large section in the present volume dealing with clinical manifestations of cholinergiC dysfunction reflects one of the most important trends in current research on cholinergiC mechanisms, namely the close inter-relationship and mutual[books.google.de]
  • Evidence suggesting mediation of this effect by peripheral autonomic nerves has been presented 7.[nature.com]
  • The distinction between these conditions is nebulous because they have a similar presentation.[brainprotips.com]
Diarrhea
  • Other side effects include nausea, diarrhea, cataracts, iris cysts, and ocular inflammation (Table 7-8).[medrounds.org]
  • Side effects associated with this agent are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, increased salivation, and increased bronchial secretions. (b) Physostigmine (Eserine ). Physostigmine is a reversible indirect acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.[armymedical.tpub.com]
  • Patients should notify their physician if they experience muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, or difficulty breathing.[bc-cn-pharmacology.weebly.com]
  • , blocking, cholinergic. cholinergic crisis, in myasthenia gravis, n a medical condition resulting from an administration of too much anticholinesterase, indicated by an immediate increase in muscle weakness, excessive secretion of pulmonary matter, diarrhea[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Discontinue drug if excessive salivation, diarrhea, emesis, or frequent urination becomes a problem to decrease the risk of severe adverse reactions.[nurseslabs.com]
Vomiting
  • •Cardiovascular: –Bradycardia, hypotension, conduction abnormalities (AV block and cardiac arrest) •CNS: –Headache, dizziness, convulsions •Gastrointestinal: –Abdominal cramps, increased secretions, nausea, vomiting •Respiratory: –Increased bronchial[bc-cn-pharmacology.weebly.com]
  • […] is limited because of their propensity to cause adverse effects in any organ under the control of the parasympathetic nervous system; adverse effects include blurred vision, cramps and diarrhea, low blood pressure and decreased heart rate, nausea and vomiting[drugs.com]
  • Muscarinic effects are those of parasympathetic overactivity and include bradycardia, pinpoint pupils, sweating, blurred vision, excessive lacrimation, excessive bronchial secretions, wheezing, dyspnoea, coughing, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea[chemistry.elmhurst.edu]
  • The duration of effect amounts to about 20 to 40 min. side effects as side effects can occur: anaphylaktische reaction in the case of overdosing: Bradycardia salivation vomiting convulsion miosis contraindications Physostigmin may not be used with the[wikipedia.qwika.com]
  • […] smoking Toxicity : -both stimulant and depressant (affects both SNS & PNS ganglia) - stimulates nicotinic receptors in CNS ---- mild alerting action -also acts centrally ---- tremor & convulsions -can increase or decrease HR -increased respiratory rate -vomiting[163.178.103.176]
Nausea
  • Other side effects include nausea, diarrhea, cataracts, iris cysts, and ocular inflammation (Table 7-8).[medrounds.org]
  • •Cardiovascular: –Bradycardia, hypotension, conduction abnormalities (AV block and cardiac arrest) •CNS: –Headache, dizziness, convulsions •Gastrointestinal: –Abdominal cramps, increased secretions, nausea, vomiting •Respiratory: –Increased bronchial[bc-cn-pharmacology.weebly.com]
  • […] agonists is limited because of their propensity to cause adverse effects in any organ under the control of the parasympathetic nervous system; adverse effects include blurred vision, cramps and diarrhea, low blood pressure and decreased heart rate, nausea[drugs.com]
  • Adverse Effects Use of direct-acting cholinergic agonists may result to these adverse effects: CV: bradycardia, heart block, hypotension, cardiac arrest GI: nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, increased salivation GU: urinary urgency Others: flushing,[nurseslabs.com]
  • The possible adverse effects of cholinergic drugs are: slow heart beat, possibly leading to cardiac arrest. muscle weakness, muscle cramps, and muscle pain convulsions weak breathing, inability to breath increased stomach acid and saliva nausea and vomiting[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Drooling
  • […] tremors, confusion, sedation or amnesia, excessive dry mouth (especially if they have chronic lung infections or disease), or fever •Monitor for therapeutic effects: •For patients with Parkinson’s disease: fewer tremors and decreased salivation and drooling[bc-cn-pharmacology.weebly.com]
  • Assessment is made for signs of muscle weakness, such as drooling (i.e., the lack of ability to swallow), inability to chew and swallow, drooping of the eyelids, inability to perform repetitive movements (e.g., walking, combing hair, using eating utensils[basicmedicalkey.com]
Increased Sweating
  • Monitor for side effects, including: Increased respiratory Abdominal cramping secretions Bronchospasms Dysrhythmias Difficulty breathing Hypotension Nausea and vomiting Bradycardia Diarrhea Increased sweating Increase in frequency and urgency of voiding[bc-cn-pharmacology.weebly.com]
  • sweating and salivation S timulation followed by depression in CNS ADR: Delirium Classification: 1.[medchrome.com]
  • sweating WARNING Pilocarpine and cevimeline may cause swallowing difficulties.[nurseslabs.com]
  • sweating *Increase salivation *Increase Bronchial secretions *Increase secretion of gastric acid Muscarinic Agonist Prototype: Bethanechol (Urecholine, Duvoid) Pharmacologic Effects: Smooth muscles *Constriction of the bronchi *Increased tone and motility[quizlet.com]
Muscle Cramp
  • The possible adverse effects of cholinergic drugs are: slow heart beat, possibly leading to cardiac arrest. muscle weakness, muscle cramps, and muscle pain convulsions weak breathing, inability to breath increased stomach acid and saliva nausea and vomiting[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Muscle Twitch
  • twitches, inability to swallow and cramping [5] Muscarinic Crisis Arises from excess activation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors Associated with: blurry vision, pain in the abdomen, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and secretion of tears and mucus[brainprotips.com]
Night Blindness
  • Adverse effects: Pilocarpine can cause blurred vision, night blindness, and brow ache. Poisoning with this agent is characterized by exaggeration of various parasympathetic effects, including profuse sweating (diaphoresis) and salivation.[brilliantnurse.com]
Seizure
  • Both antagonists produced clonic/tonic seizures and spike activity. Carbamylcholine-induced seizures were blocked by scopolamine. 5. 5. No agent was found to block antagonist-induced seizures.[nebraska.pure.elsevier.com]
  • Cholinergic and Myasthenic crisis (Edrophonium) Glaucoma (Physostigmine, Demecarium, Ecothiphate) Alzheimer’s disease (Physostigmine, Tacrine) Atropine overdose/Belladona poisoning (Physostigmine) To be used cautiously in: Peptic ulcer Asthma and COPD Seizure[medchrome.com]
  • Severe exposure (see DUMBELS) -more intensified symptoms -visual disturbances -muscle fasciculation -bronchoconstriction & pulmonary edema -pronounced muscle weakness -shallow respiration -vomiting and diarrhea -CNS effects, anxiety, headache, tremor, seizures[163.178.103.176]
  • Who should not use these medications : Individuals with the following conditions should not use cholinergic drugs: Hyperactive thyroid ( hyperthyroidism ) Peptic ulcer disease Asthma Bradycardia (slow heart rate) or low blood pressure Seizures Parkinson's[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Side effects associated with the hyperosmotic agents can be severe and include headache, back pain, diuresis, circulatory overload with angina, pulmonary edema and heart failure, and central nervous system effects such as obtundation, seizure, and cerebral[eyewiki.aao.org]

Treatment

  • Comprehensive coverage provides an in-depth understanding of the most commonly used drugs, how they work, and how they affect patients’ oral health and dental treatment options.[books.google.de]
  • It is used in the treatment of glaucoma. It causes the contraction of the iris sphincter muscle; this results in miosis (pupil constriction).[armymedical.tpub.com]
  • Our article on types of interventions for children with ASD takes you through the main treatments, so you can better understand your child’s options.[raisingchildren.net.au]
  • It was introduced in 1876, when it became one of the first commonly used medical treatments for glaucoma, and remarkably, it has remained an important antiglaucoma medication till date.[aibolita.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Most patients with glaucoma retain useful vision for most of their lives if caught early and treatment is initiated. Incidence of unilateral blindness has been reported to be 27% and bilateral blindness 9% at 20 years following diagnosis.[eyewiki.aao.org]

Pathophysiology

  • Other possible risk factors include: perfusion pressure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, myopia Pathophysiology Not entirely understood.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • This form is Ca 2 - independent and is responsible for some pathophysiological responses to endotoxin (hypotension, e.g.). 1 Granger,D.N., Regulation of Regional Blood Flow, In Essential Physiology,(Johnson, L.[pharmacology2000.com]

Prevention

  • For example, nerve agents and organophosphates prevent the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Thus, allowing acetylcholine to remain attached and continue stimulating the cholinergic receptors.[allnurses.com]
  • •When giving ophthalmic solutions, apply pressure to the inner canthus to prevent systemic absorption. •Dry mouth may occur; can be handled by chewing gum, frequent mouth care, and hard candy.[bc-cn-pharmacology.weebly.com]
  • Direct agonists Most direct agonists are resistant to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) thereby prevents breakdown of agonist increases cholinergic effect Indirect Agonists (Cholinesterase Inhibitors) Mechanism of action all work by inhibiting ACHE thereby[medbullets.com]
  • To prevent hypersensitivity reaction Bradycardia, intestinal/urinary tract obstruction. Can be exacerbated by the stimulation of cholinergic receptors Pregnancy.[nurseslabs.com]
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors act indirectly by preventing the enzyme from hydrolyzing (inactivating) acetylcholine at the receptor site.[chemistry.elmhurst.edu]

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