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Chronic Alcoholism

Alcohol Toxicity

Chronic alcoholism is a highly prevalent and disabling condition, characterized by high rates of morbidity as well as early mortality due to excessive ethanol consumption.


Presentation

The clinical spectrum of chronic alcoholism is an unusual paradox for clinicians. Alcohol use in humans has continued for millennia and moderate amounts of ethanol consumption may actually improve health. However, a subset of drinkers may develop catastrophic complications affecting a multitude of organ systems in the body [1].

Alcohol use, when excessive or chronic, may lead to a variety of adverse effects including and not limited to hepatic dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, neurological injuries, increased risk for malignancies and unintentional accidents. Moderate alcohol intake is to be avoided if it puts the patient at risk (e.g. while driving a car, during pregnancy etc.). Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are amongst the commonest causes of preventable death in the world.

Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with a decreased incidence of coronary heart disease, while heavy drinking may be a precursor for cardiomyopathy. Also, high levels of alcohol use are associated with an elevated risk of developing hepatitis and cirrhosis, especially in males [2].

Alcohol use has been linked with an increased risk for multiple cancers, with many studies confirming the association between alcoholism and breast, esophageal, oropharyngeal, laryngeal, colorectal, and hepatocellular malignancies.

Alcoholism also predisposes to both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Osteoporosis and falls leading to fractures of the hip are more common in alcoholic patients.

Fetal alcohol syndrome, which presents with features such as neurological dysfunction, growth retardation, and characteristic facies, is associated with heavy alcohol use in pregnant women [3] [4].

Chronic alcoholism is also implicated in increased morbidity and mortality from trauma, suicide, and other violent episodes.

Physician
  • The report highlights the fact that all physicians should be alerted to photosensitivity dermatoses in alcoholics; early treatment with multiple vitamin therapy, including nicotinic acid should be initiated in these patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The physician who last attended the soldier testifies that the cause of death was chronic alcoholism.[thesaurus.com]
  • […] logo-32 logo-40 logo-60 New England Journal of Medicine NEJM Group Follow Us Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube LinkedIn Blog Prepare to become a physician, build your knowledge, lead a health care organization, and advance your career with NEJM Group[nejm.org]
  • Of particular interest to the physician is the chapter on alcoholism dealing mostly with its mental phenomena, as these men see it.[silkworth.net]
Malnutrition
  • A 42-year-old man with a history of Billroth II-gastrectomy, chronic alcoholism, and malnutrition developed acute tetraparesis, two days before admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • The first had been admitted with confusion and weight loss, the second with hypotension and sepsis, and the third with confusion and hypoglycaemia-induced seizures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms of the disease include anorexia, diarrhea, weight loss, neurologic and psychiatric disturbances (most notably depression), and fatty deterioration of the liver, sometimes leading to cirrhosis.[omicsonline.org]
  • Keep fighting Email Me Popular Posts My Weight Loss Story Funny Stories About Running Problems Most Joggers Face In Long Distance Training Why I Started To Run All Posts Other shit you’ll like that I’ve written[angryjogger.com]
Noncompliance
  • Clients must occasionally be discharged as noncompliant, which reinforces to the chronic relapser that he/she can no longer successfully live on self will.[addictionpro.com]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • Alcohol use disorder is a chronic disease not unlike diabetes or congestive heart failure. If alcoholism is considered a chronic disease, a treatment success rate of 50% is similar to the success rates in other chronic illnesses.[emedicinehealth.com]
Hyposmia
  • Alcohol-related brain damage manifests clinically as cognitive dysfunction and the loss of smell sensation (hyposmia) and pathologically as generalized white matter atrophy and focal neuronal loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen alcoholics without liver failure or serious illness and presenting symptoms of dyspepsia, nausea or diarrhea were included. The (13)C-D-xylose breath test was performed in 14 of the included subjects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Constant pain in the stomach and right upper quadrant, indigestion, nausea, vomiting after eating, enlarged liver, poor pancreas work are also true signs of the chronic form of alcoholism.[tadalafilgen.com]
  • Acute alcoholism is temporary and results in depression of the higher nerve cells, resulting in lack of coordination, impaired motor control, stupor, dehydration and nausea.[epainassist.com]
  • ALDH deficiency increases the levels of acetaldehyde formed in the body, leading to facial flushing, tachycardia and nausea.[esciencecentral.org]
  • Pain “Pins and needles” Numbness Muscle weakness, cramps, or aches Muscle spasms / contractions Tingling Constipation Diarrhea Incontinence (leaking urine) or difficulty with urination Impotence in men Nausea / vomiting Evaluation & Tests (Not all evaluation[foundationforpn.org]
Vomiting
  • […] explanations for the differences in blood-ethanol and blood-acetone in acute poisoning and alcoholism deaths such as chronic tolerance, alcohol-related organ and tissue damage (cirrhosis, pancreatitis), positional asphyxia or suffocation by inhalation of vomit[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Constant pain in the stomach and right upper quadrant, indigestion, nausea, vomiting after eating, enlarged liver, poor pancreas work are also true signs of the chronic form of alcoholism.[tadalafilgen.com]
  • Symptoms include vomiting blood, black stool, decreased blood pressure, increased heart rate and massive hemorrhage.[livestrong.com]
  • Pain “Pins and needles” Numbness Muscle weakness, cramps, or aches Muscle spasms / contractions Tingling Constipation Diarrhea Incontinence (leaking urine) or difficulty with urination Impotence in men Nausea / vomiting Evaluation & Tests (Not all evaluation[foundationforpn.org]
  • Symptoms include numbness, tingling and pain, muscle weakness usually in the extremities, loss of bladder or bowel control, impotence, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, or constipation. 12.[onhealth.com]
Diarrhea
  • OBJECTIVE: Diarrhea, weight loss and osteoporosis are prominent symptoms and clinical signs of alcoholism. One of several possible factors causing this clinical picture is small intestinal damage leading to malabsorption.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms of the disease include anorexia, diarrhea, weight loss, neurologic and psychiatric disturbances (most notably depression), and fatty deterioration of the liver, sometimes leading to cirrhosis.[omicsonline.org]
  • NUTRITIONAL – of course, can lead to Thiamine deficiency -- Wernicke/Korsakoff -- Dry and Wet Beriberi, Niacin deficiency -- Pellagra (diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis), Folate deficiency.[errolozdalga.com]
  • Symptoms of chronic alcoholism include diarrhea, hallucinations, anorexia, weight loss, neurological and psychiatric disturbances, fatty worsening of the liver and other related problems.[epainassist.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis Case 4-2019: An 18-Year-Old Man with Abdominal Pain and Hematochezia Bridging the Gap Challenge Yourself[nejm.org]
  • If you have liver disease, you may get tired easily, have shortness of breath, and have severe abdominal pain. These are things that might limit what kind of work you can perform.[disabilitysecrets.com]
  • Chronic pancreatitis interferes with the digestive process, causing severe abdominal pain and persistent diarrhea --and "it's not fixable," Saitz says.[webmd.com]
Dyspepsia
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen alcoholics without liver failure or serious illness and presenting symptoms of dyspepsia, nausea or diarrhea were included. The (13)C-D-xylose breath test was performed in 14 of the included subjects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Indicators of Possible Problem Drinking or Alcoholism Symptoms Recurrent intoxication, nausea, sweating, tachycardia Amnesic episodes (blackouts) Mood swings, depression, anxiety, insomnia, chronic fatigue Grand mal seizures, hallucinations, delirium tremens Dyspepsia[aafp.org]
Poor Oral Hygiene
  • Signs of vitamin deficiency Oral changes due to chronic alcohol use Changes found in the mouth often relate to nutritional deficiency or poor oral hygiene.[dermnetnz.org]
Jaundice
  • A rare syndrome defined by a rapid decline in hepatic function, characterised by jaundice, coagulopathy (INR 1.5), and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with no evidence of prior liver disease. [6] Trey C, Davidson CS.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • Jaundice The skin and sclera of the eyes often turn yellow in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The colour, known as jaundice, is due to bilirubin, a product broken down from haem derived from red blood cells.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Signs of liver disease, such as palmar erythema, gynaecomastia, spider naevi and jaundice [ 9 ]. Hepatomegaly (in chronic alcoholic liver disease the liver is shrunken). Ascites; gonadal atrophy. Atrial fibrillation and cardiomyopathy.[patient.info]
  • Rarely, patients with fatty liver or cirrhosis present with Zieve syndrome (hyperlipidemia, hemolytic anemia, and jaundice).[merckmanuals.com]
Hepatomegaly
  • Hepatomegaly (in chronic alcoholic liver disease the liver is shrunken). Ascites; gonadal atrophy. Atrial fibrillation and cardiomyopathy.[patient.info]
  • Characteristic ultrasonographic findings include a hyperechoic liver with or without hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can readily detect cirrhosis.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Most patients with moderate disease are undernourished and present with fatigue, fever, jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, tender hepatomegaly, and sometimes a hepatic bruit.[merckmanuals.com]
Hypertension
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of dilated cardiomyopathy, of either alcoholic or hypertensive origin, is related to an increase in myocardial superoxide dismutase activity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CV – Hypertension, Dilated cardiomyopathy PULMONARY – none directly, but pts often develop pneumonia including aspiration. Also, suspect Klebsiella as a pathogen.[errolozdalga.com]
  • Alcoholism can result in heart disease, stroke, and hypertension. Treatment for Alcoholism As the most common substance for abuse in the United States, it’s not surprisingly if you have a loved one who suffers from chronic alcoholism.[morningsiderecovery.com]
Tachycardia
  • Mild pyrexia, tachycardia and hypertension. Sweating, nausea and retching. Seizures. Auditory and visual hallucinations.[patient.info]
  • ALDH deficiency increases the levels of acetaldehyde formed in the body, leading to facial flushing, tachycardia and nausea.[esciencecentral.org]
  • View/Print Table TABLE 1 Indicators of Possible Problem Drinking or Alcoholism Symptoms Recurrent intoxication, nausea, sweating, tachycardia Amnesic episodes (blackouts) Mood swings, depression, anxiety, insomnia, chronic fatigue Grand mal seizures,[aafp.org]
  • More severe effects of withdrawal can include hallucinations in which a patient sees, hears, or feels something that is not actually present, seizures, an unbearable craving for more alcohol, confusion, fever, fast heart rate (tachycardia), high blood[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Red Eye
  • If you have a teenager, be alert to signs and symptoms that may indicate a problem with alcohol: Loss of interest in activities and hobbies and in personal appearance Red eyes, slurred speech, problems with coordination and memory lapses Difficulties[mayoclinic.org]
Flushing
  • Flushing Transient flushing is also a common side effect of alcohol, particularly in heavy drinkers. It is due to acetaldehyde, the main breakdown product of alcohol. Acetaldehyde is thought to cause flushing by stimulating release of histamine.[dermnetnz.org]
  • ALDH deficiency increases the levels of acetaldehyde formed in the body, leading to facial flushing, tachycardia and nausea.[esciencecentral.org]
  • Asians, who have lower levels of ALDH, are more susceptible to toxic acetaldehyde effects (eg, flushing); the effects are similar to those of disulfiram, which inhibits ALDH.[merckmanuals.com]
  • […] far been identified are protective against alcoholism; approximately one half of all Southeast Asians have genetic variants of alcohol metabolizing enzymes such that after drinking only small amounts of alcohol, they experience an unpleasant facial flushing[aafp.org]
Denial
  • This symptom, called denial, is almost always present in the disease of alcoholism. See alcoholic denial. Later, difficulties in relationships, on the job, or with the law often occur.[healthyplace.com]
  • If someone you love is drinking more than they should, they may be in denial. Educate yourself on some of the misconceptions surrounding alcohol abuse: Myth: Alcohol is not physically addictive.[addictions.com]
  • American Chemical Society Although the magnitude of social and psychological pathology associated with alcoholism is more difficult to calculate—in part because of public denial—it is enormous.[britannica.com]
  • ALCOHOL USE DISORDER (Alcoholism) Prediction: Episodic/Chronic For Years Occupational-Economic: Causes academic and/or vocational impairment Economic problems caused by squandering money or alcohol-related unemployment Wisdom vs Irrationality : Marked denial[mentalhealth.com]
  • Because denial is common, you may not feel like you have a problem with drinking. You might not recognize how much you drink or how many problems in your life are related to alcohol use.[mayoclinic.org]
Emotional Lability
  • Health problems due to alcohol Alcohol intoxication Effects of alcohol intoxication include: Heart: slow heart rate or irregular rhythm, low blood pressure CNS : headache, confusion, memory loss, disorientation, poor coordination, emotional lability Gastrointestinal[dermnetnz.org]
Chronic Anxiety
  • These co-disorders include liver damage, heart failure, cancers, chronic anxiety, depression, and permanent brain damage.[harborvillageflorida.com]
Suicidal Depression
  • Alcoholism can increase thoughts of suicide, depression, and cause people to behave irrationally. Some who are prone to violence may get into fights or engage in gun violence.[morningsiderecovery.com]
Facial Redness
  • Vascular effects of alcohol Facial redness One of the earliest signs of alcohol abuse is a persistently red face due to enlarged blood vessels ( telangiectasia ).[dermnetnz.org]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • dysfunction F10.182 Alcohol abuse with alcohol-induced sleep disorder F10.188 Alcohol abuse with other alcohol-induced disorder F10.19 …… with unspecified alcohol-induced disorder F10.2 Alcohol dependence F10.20 …… uncomplicated F10.22 Alcohol dependence[icd10data.com]
  • This imbalance leads to sexual dysfunction as well as enlarged breasts for men, and interruptions in the menstrual cycle and inability to conceive for women.[searidgealcoholrehab.com]
  • Dysfunction - DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association Alcohol-Induced Sleep Disorder - DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association Alcohol Withdrawal - DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association[mentalhealth.com]
Seizure
  • Report of a case of SESA syndrome: a rare CNS complication of chronic alcoholism, known since 1981 and characterized by epileptic seizures, multiple and reversible neurological deficits, as well as PLEDs in the EEG.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Seizures Heavy drinking can cause seizures (sometimes called "rum fits"), even if the drinker is not an epileptic. But the SSA will evaluate this condition on its epilepsy listing. For more information, see our article on disability and seizures.[disabilitysecrets.com]
Confusion
  • The first had been admitted with confusion and weight loss, the second with hypotension and sepsis, and the third with confusion and hypoglycaemia-induced seizures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] engage in violent behavior, neglect of physical appearance and proper nutrition, alcohol-related illness (such as hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver), and moderate to severe withdrawal symptoms (such as irritability, anxiety, tremors, insomnia, and confusion[merriam-webster.com]
  • Confusion also takes several months to clear up. As confusion clears, the severe memory problems associated with Korsakoff syndrome may become more noticeable.[alz.org]
Tremor
  • Tremor frequency was significantly greater in the alcoholics than in essential tremor. Propranolol therapy decreased tremor more in the alcoholics than in essential tremor. The tremor of chronic alcoholism differs from essential tremor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Propranolol therapy decreased tremor more in the alcoholics than in essential tremor. The tremor of chronic alcoholism differs from essential tremor. 1985 by Modern Medicine Publications, Inc.[neurology.org]
  • In the event of discontinuation of alcohol drinking, the patient exhibits anxiety, anger, sweating, nausea, headaches, limb tremor, in the most severe cases, hallucinations and cardiac arrhythmia may occur.[tadalafilgen.com]
  • The symptoms following are common of chronic alcohol addiction: Body tremors and convulsions Excessive sweating Extreme anxiety disorders Seizures Auditory & visual hallucinations Liver disease Heart failure Permanent brain damage Osteoporosis Erectile[harborvillageflorida.com]
Irritability
  • […] work and socialize, tendency to drink alone and engage in violent behavior, neglect of physical appearance and proper nutrition, alcohol-related illness (such as hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver), and moderate to severe withdrawal symptoms (such as irritability[merriam-webster.com]
  • The allergic reaction to alcohol is an irritation of the cells of the brain, causing them to weep.[eskimo.com]
  • This is characterised by severe anxiety and irritability, sleeping difficulty, insomnia, elevated heart rate and BP, fever, and auditory and visual hallucinations.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • But alcohol also can be a gastric irritant and cause nausea, cramping and diarrhea, which can lead to bloating and abdominal discomfort.[redeyechicago.com]
Insomnia
  • Platelet 5-HT concentration, but not platelet MAO-B activity, was significantly reduced in alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to patients without insomnia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These symptoms include: Drinking alone Depending on alcohol in times of stress Turning to alcohol as a means of entertainment Associating with drinkers Drinking early on in the day and late into the night Insomnia Breaking down of family and professional[harborvillageflorida.com]
  • […] drink alone and engage in violent behavior, neglect of physical appearance and proper nutrition, alcohol-related illness (such as hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver), and moderate to severe withdrawal symptoms (such as irritability, anxiety, tremors, insomnia[merriam-webster.com]
  • […] inattention to family and professional obligations Dangerous behaviors that carry risk of legal, financial and/or health consequences for themselves and others Increase in expressions of anger or other emotions, especially in inappropriate settings Insomnia[timberlineknolls.com]
  • The most common symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include: Shakiness, tremors or Delirium tremens Anxiety Irritability Depression Fatigue Mood swings Bad dreams or nightmares Headaches Nausea and vomiting Sweats, cold, clammy skin Insomnia or trouble sleeping[addictions.com]

Workup

The diagnosis of chronic alcoholism is made primarily by a proper evaluation of the patient’s history. Physical examination findings may only be evident once the patient has suffered serious consequences of chronic alcoholism. The laboratory tests for detecting heavy alcohol use have a low sensitivity. Thus, an early diagnosis can be made by taking a careful history of the individual and the deleterious effects of alcoholism may be avoided.

Alcohol biomarkers may be used to determine the presence of heavy alcohol use [5]. Indirect alcohol biomarkers reflect the adverse effects of alcohol on the various organ systems, while the direct alcohol biomarkers include alcohol and its metabolites.

Alcohol is a common cause of macrocytosis, with a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of 100-110 fL seen in a majority of patients. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) may be abnormal. A higher elevation of AST compared with an elevation of ALT is characteristic of alcoholic hepatitis. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) levels are also elevated [6] [7]. Other indirect biomarkers include salsolinol, total serum sialic acid (TSA), 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL), and N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (Beta-Hex).

A serum alcohol level during the routine examination greater than 100 mg/dL is a reliable indicator of chronic alcoholism. The other direct biomarkers include ethyl glucuronide (EtG), acetaldehyde, phosphatidylethanol, and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) [8] [9].

Pancreatic Calcification
  • Unlike recurrent acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis is characterised by reduced pancreatic exocrine function, malabsorption, diabetes, and pancreatic calcifications.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Mutations, decreased promoter activity, and decreased expression in PTEN are frequently identified in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ONCOLOGY – alcohol predisposes to multiple cancers, most notably Hepatocellular carcinoma (secondary to cirrhosis), also ENT and esophageal cancers (synergistic with smoking), as well as breast cancer and others.[errolozdalga.com]
  • Dysfibrinogenaemia In severe liver disease, especially with hepatocellular carcinoma. Thrombin time. Reptilase time.[rcpa.edu.au]
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in 10 to 15% of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.[merckmanuals.com]

Treatment

  • The last few decades have seen many pharmacological studies devoted to the improvement of alcoholism treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • We consider that these findings may be useful for evaluating the psychiatric state as a prognosis in chronic alcoholic patients, and should be a routine laboratory test in alcoholic patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis worsens with the increased length of addiction and is reversely proportionate to the age when the disease started.[flexikon.doccheck.com]
  • Certain biopsy findings (eg, neutrophils, perivenular fibrosis) indicate a worse prognosis.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The long-term prognosis. Am J Gastroenterol 1971; 56(6):515–525. Bonis PA, Friedman SL, Kaplan MM. Is liver fibrosis reversible? N Engl J Med 2001; 344(6):452–454. Romano DR, Jiménez C, Rodriguez F, et al.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

Etiology

  • OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ETIOLOGY OF ALCOHOLISM The uninitiated think of alcoholism simply as a weakness of will power. The psychiatrist thinks of excessive drinking as a neurosis, but the usual treatment for neurosis is seldom effective.[jamanetwork.com]

Epidemiology

  • This article reviews the clinical, pathophysiological, and epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions. A major risk factor common to both oral cancer and alcoholic cirrhosis is the excessive use of alcohol.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 Aug. 72 (8):757-66. [Medline].[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Annals of Epidemiology 17(Suppl.5):S40–S42, 2007. Hillbom, M.; Pieninkeroinen, I.; and Leone, M. Seizures in alcohol-dependent patients: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. CNS Drugs 17(14):1013–1030, 2003.[pubs.niaaa.nih.gov]
  • "The Epidemiology of At-Risk and Binge Drinking Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Community Adults National Survey on Drug Use and Health." American Journal of Psychiatry 166.10 Oct. 2009: 1162-1169. Bloomfield, K., T. Stockwell, G. Gmel, and N. Rehn.[medicinenet.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This article reviews the clinical, pathophysiological, and epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions. A major risk factor common to both oral cancer and alcoholic cirrhosis is the excessive use of alcohol.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology of Chronic Alcoholism To treat alcoholism, we need to understand how ethanol is metabolized within the human body and the effects of excessive consumption.[esciencecentral.org]
  • Pathophysiology of color vision loss in chronic alcoholism Retinoscopy has provided evidence for ganglion cell degeneration as a possible pathophysiological mechanism to explain the visual dysfunction symptoms observed in several metabolic neuropathies[scielo.br]

Prevention

  • CONCLUSION: Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are amongst the commonest causes of preventable death in the world.[symptoma.com]
  • As a result, it is critical to always enroll in an accredited alcohol treatment center to prevent the chances of fatality, and complications, during withdrawal.[harborvillageflorida.com]
  • To learn more about our programs and prevent the damages that the risks of chronic alcoholism can cause, call us today at 855-631-2135 .[morningsiderecovery.com]

References

Article

  1. World Health Organization. International classification of diseases. 10th revision. WHO. 1992.
  2. Diehl AM. Liver disease in alcohol abusers: clinical perspective. Alcohol. 2002;27:7–11.
  3. Lieber CS. ALCOHOL: its metabolism and interaction with nutrients. Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:395–430.
  4. Klatsky AL, Chartier D, Udaltsova N, et al. Alcohol drinking and risk of hospitalization for heart failure with and without associated coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:346–351.
  5. US Department of Health and Human Services. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The Role of Biomarkers in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders. 2006.
  6. Moussavian SN, Becker RC, Piepmeyer JL, Mezey E, Bozian RC. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and chronic alcoholism. Influence of alcohol ingestion and liver disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1985;30:211–214.
  7. Hannuksela ML, Liisanantti MK, Nissinen AE, Savolainen MJ. Biochemical markers of alcoholism. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(8):953­61.
  8. Das SK, Dhanya L, Vasudevan DM. Biomarkers of alcoholism: an updated review. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2008;68(2):81­92.
  9. Peterson K. Biomarkers for alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol Res Health. 2004/2005; 28(1):30-37.

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Last updated: 2019-07-11 21:23