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Chronic Hepatitis B


Presentation

  • As the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection presents a massive economic burden. 1 Here we review methods of diagnosis, prevention and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Later in the acute disease, HBsAg may no longer be present, in which case a test for antibodies to a different antigen—hepatitis B core antigen—is used.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • A normal liver with no scar tissue present is stage 0. A combination of increasing amounts of scar tissue in the liver and a change in its pattern increases the classification to a higher stage.[badgut.org]
  • Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb or Anti-HBc) Shows a person has had hepatitis B, either past or present infection.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Fatigue
  • That is, many people who have hepatitis B do not have any symptoms but, for those who do, symptoms are generally nonspecific, such as mild fatigue or discomfort in the abdomen.[badgut.org]
Nausea
  • Some people may experience more severe symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), or a bloated stomach that may cause them to see a health care provider.[hepb.org]
  • The most commom symptoms of acute hepatitis B are loss of appetite, nausea, generally feeling poorly, and pain or tenderness in the right upper part of the abdomen (where the liver is located).[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Occasionally, patients may experience nausea and stomach upset. One of the main differences between these medications and interferon is that treatment with oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues is usually long-term (years).[badgut.org]
  • Symptoms, if they occur, may include: fever loss of appetite nausea and vomiting abdominal pain (especially in the right upper abdomen) yellow skin or eyes (jaundice) (see image) dark coloured urine and pale faeces muscle and joint pain rash.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Skin Edema
  • Large amounts of fluid collect in the abdomen and beneath the skin ( edema ). The least common outcome of acute HBV infection, seen in fewer than 1% of patients, is fulminant hepatitis, when the liver fails entirely.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Arthritis
  • Occasionally patients with HBV infection will develop joint swelling and pain (arthritis) as well as hives or a skin rash before jaundice appears. The joint symptoms usually last no longer than three to seven days.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Treatment

  • ADV); coordinate treatment with transplant centre.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The cure (defined as hepatitis B surface antigen loss with undetectable HBV DNA) rates after treatment remain low (3%-7% with pegylated interferon and 1%-12% with nucleos[t]ide analogue therapy).[jamanetwork.com]
  • […] by: Guidance Issuing Office Center for Drug Evaluation and Research The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled “Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Developing Drugs for Treatment[fda.gov]
  • If treatment for an acute hepatitis B infection is required, a person may be hospitalized for general support. Rest and managing symptoms are the primary goals of this medical care.[hepb.org]
  • IT” DOCUMENTARY YOU ARE LEAVING HEPB.COM You will be directed to a product website to learn more about a treatment option for chronic hep B.[hepb.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Each year an estimated 150,000 persons in the United States get hepatitis B. More than 10,000 will Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is composed of an inner protein core and an outer protein capsule.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Epidemiology

  • Hepatitis B: evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis 1991; 11 : 84-92 [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 3. Kane MA. Global status of hepatitis B immunisation. Lancet 1996; 348 : 696 [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 4.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Jaundice in a patient with hepatitis hepatitis B (1) Hepatitis B virus. (2) The disease caused by hepatitis B virus. hepatitis B Hepatology Liver inflammation by HBV, a small, highly contagious DNA virus of the Hepadnaviridae family Epidemiology 60-110[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Prevention The best way to prevent any form of viral hepatitis is to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids of infected individuals. The use of condoms during sex also is advisable.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • However, 3-5% go on to develop chronic hepatitis B which then follows a similar pattern to perinatally acquired chronic HBV infection. 5 PREVENTION HBV transmission can be prevented by screening of donated blood, plasma, organ tissue and semen, by virus[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 12-24 hours after birth.[hepb.org]
  • How can hepatitis C virus infection be prevented? There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus infection.[acog.org]
  • Routine monitoring (at least annually) even when there are no symptoms, can prevent severe liver disease including liver cancer.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]

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