Chronic laryngitis is a condition characterized by laryngeal inflammation lasting for longer than six weeks. It leads to waxing and waning dysphonia and hoarseness of voice and may be a precursor to laryngeal cancer. Vocal abuse, smoking, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and allergies are some of the causes of chronic laryngitis.
Chronic laryngitis (CL) is chronic laryngeal inflammation with an annual incidence of about 4 cases per population of 1000 . The most common cause of CL is laryngopharyngeal reflux but other causes include vocal abuse (singing, teaching), smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine intake, bacterial and fungal infections as well as occupations like glass blowing   .
Patients usually present with waxing and waning dysphonia, globus (foreign body) sensation in the throat, pain in the throat, constant urge to clear the throat, and dry cough. Symptoms of dysphonia include reduced volume, hoarseness, raw sensation, inability to modulate the voice and vocal fatigue.The symptoms depend on the severity of the inflammation. In severe infections, patients may have a fever, laryngeal edema, dyspnea and even stridor. Chronic laryngeal mucosal injury secondary to gastroduodenal reflux (GERD) of acidic contents has been implicated as a cause of CL in almost 50% of the patients . Clinical features of CL associated with GERD are called laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) as the main region affected is the laryngopharynx  .
Symptoms of dysphonia include reduced volume, hoarseness, raw sensation, inability to modulate the voice and vocal fatigue.The symptoms depend on the severity of the inflammation. [symptoma.com]
Throat discomfort and pain upon emitting sounds There is often a habit of clearing ones throat but no evident sputum is coughed up The hoarseness is more evident when attempting to make a high pitched sound A long history of hoarseness and aphonia Hoarseness [americandragon.com]
Though hoarseness may seem like a minor inconvenience, it’s important to avoid the factors that irritate your larynx. [spokesman.com]
This acid can cause hoarseness and a painful throat (known as pharyngitis. If you are concerned that you may have GERD that is causing a sore throat or hoarseness, you can do a free symptom assessment using the Ada app at any time. [ada.com]
Chronic throat irritation 4. Dry hacking cough Signs: 1. Vocal cord edges loose their pearly shine and appear red and congested with dilated blood vessels on the superior surface. 2. Cord movements appear asynchronous and flabby on phonation 3. [specialist-ent.com]
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Stomach acids flow backward (reflux) into the esophagus and throat, irritating the vocal cords. Work-related exposure to chemicals or dusts that irritate the vocal cords. [askdoctork.com]
Chronic Laryngitis Causes The most common causes of chronic laryngitis include: Bad habits that lead to throat irritation (smoking, for example). A prolonged cough due to cold, flu, or another respiratory ailment. [virginiaent.com]
In the disorder, acidic fluids from the stomach flow backward (reflux) into the esophagus and throat, irritating the larynx. [onlymyhealth.com]
A person can often treat acute symptoms at home, such as by: avoiding talking, singing, or unnecessary use of the voice drinking plenty of fluids limiting caffeine and alcohol intake avoiding decongestants not smoking avoiding throat irritants, such as [medicalnewstoday.com]
Gastroesophageal reflux and laryngeal disease.. Arch Surg, 128 (1993), pp. 1021-1026  Paterson WG, Murat BW. Combined Ambulatory Esophageal Manometry and Dual-Probe pH-Metry in Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Cough.. [bjorl.org.br]
Procedure preference was determined by the presence of concomitant laryngeal disease and the patient’s ability to tolerate an awake procedure. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Very occasionally hoarseness can be attributed to manifestations of laryngeal disease other than tumors (Table 1). [aerzteblatt.de]
This sensation becomes more prominent during emotional upset and subsides when relaxed Distention and pain in the sides or flanks Suffocating sensation in the chest and hypochondrium Tendency to sigh Melancholy Depression Irritability Inappropriate anger [americandragon.com]
The diagnosis of CL is based on clinical evaluation and patient history. It is vital for the otolaryngologist to inquire about the patient's occupation, allergies, vocal abuse and infections (tuberculosis). During the physical examination, an indirect, as well as, flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy is performed in all patients presenting with dysphonia lasting longer than 3 weeks. LPR can be diagnosed on the basis of the presenting symptoms and the appearance of laryngeal edema and arytenoid erythema on laryngoscopy . In addition, thick, sticky mucus may be noticed in the piriform sinuses and valleculae. A video-stroboscopy provides information about vocal fold anatomy, vibratory pattern and can help to differentiate between a sulcus vocalis from mucosal stiffness. If infective etiology is suspected then a complete blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate with sputum cultures and sensitivities for bacteria, fungi, and viruses should be ordered. Serology for autoimmune disorders like sarcoidosis should also be considered. Skin allergy testing is recommended if an allergic etiology is suspected. Barium swallow, manometry and 24 hour pH monitoring are recommended for the diagnosis of GERD.
Although plain X-ray neck has no role in the diagnosis of CL, plain X-ray chest may help to detect pulmonary tuberculosis or sarcoidosis as the cause of CL. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance scan are not routinely performed but may help to detect soft tissue changes, structural laryngeal changes, as well as, tumors.
Microlaryngoscopy under general anesthesia to visualize the larynx with a microscope may be necessary to detect tiny lesions and obtain tissue for biopsy, as well as for staining and cultures. The histological examination may reveal pachydermia (in long-term smoker's CL), amyloidosis, granulomatous lesions as well as malignancies. Lipoid proteinosis with hyaline deposits can mimic chronic laryngitis  on histology.
All patients received treatment with pantoprazole 80 mg daily for 8 weeks. One week after the end treatment, patients had a second ENT examination and a 24-hour pH monitoring using dual-channel probe. We included 33 patients (11 men, 22 women). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The prognosis in confirmed laryngitis is not favorable, as but few have the patience necessary to persist in the use of remedies until a cure is effected. [henriettes-herb.com]
Before anti-tubercular drug use, in the 1950’s, it was a common and frequently fatal disease but it’s clinical features, age group involved and prognosis has changed over the last few decades. [scopemed.org]
However, any underlying conditions or infections may have to be treated accordingly Generally, the prognosis is excellent with suitable treatment; acute cases are normally self-limiting and last a couple of weeks, while chronic conditions may take longer [dovemed.com]
Rarely, in severe infections such as those with herpes viruses, laryngeal erosion and necrosis may occur. [ 1 ] Prognosis In acute laryngitis, the prognosis is usually excellent. [patient.info]
Less frequently used treatments include intralesional injections or laser resection. Prognosis Acute Acute laryngitis may persist, but will typically resolve on its own within two weeks. Recovery is likely to be quick if the patient [en.wikipedia.org]
Skin allergy testing is recommended if an allergic etiology is suspected. Barium swallow, manometry and 24 hour pH monitoring are recommended for the diagnosis of GERD. [symptoma.com]
These findings show a possible role of H. pylori infection in the etiology of chronic laryngitis in certain patients and can be important for clinical diagnosis and treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] secretion in chronic laryngitis. ( 11081617 ) Ebenfelt A....Finizia C. 2000 34 Diagnosis and management of chronic laryngitis associated with reflux. ( 10718463 ) Hanson D.G....Jiang J.J. 2000 35 A possible role of helicobacter pylori infection in the etiology [malacards.org]
Amitriptyline is commonly used for mental/mood problems, but is also prescribed to treat chronic laryngitis because some investigators suggest a neuropathic etiology for idiopathic chronic laryngitis. [clinicaltrials.gov]
Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of obesity on this condition. 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiology. 12:200–208. pmid:11246581 View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 24. [journals.plos.org]
Key words Laryngitis insulin resistance epidemiology Republic of Korea This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. References 1. Hammer HF. [link.springer.com]
The Epidemiologic Survey Committee of the Korean Otolaryngologic Society prepared a CL diagnostic protocol. The laryngologic questionnaire asked whether the participants have had problems with their voice. [karger.com]
Pathophysiology : Dilated vessels are seen on superior surface of vocal cords. Movements are flabby and sluggish. Interstitial oedema and inflammatory exudates are present. [specialist-ent.com]
World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology. 2010;1:91–96. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar 21. El-Serag HB, Graham DY, Satia JA, Rabeneck L. Obesity is an independent risk factor for GERD symptoms and erosive esophagitis. [link.springer.com]
Our data question the uniform presence of dilated intercellular space in patients with GERD and suggest a possible graded distal oesophageal variation of this pathophysiologic marker. [onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
Signs and symptoms of laryngitis that last weeks or months and that may vary in severity over this period of time, are rarely caused by infectious or mechanical pathophysiological processes. [journals.plos.org]
This suggests that differences in pathophysiology between LPR and GERD patients are part of the basis for the contrasting symptomology. [nature.com]
By having a good comfort level in your throat you will be able to prevent your voice or throat from straining and therefore can prevent inflammation. [onlymyhealth.com]
Therefore, symptoms of 96% of patients responded to treatment aimed at preventing reflux of gastric acid. The remaining patients with refractory symptoms had a partial response or no response or chose fundoplication. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
For prevention of a disease it is necessary to strengthen immunity, to limit the use of spicy, fat, salty food, not to abuse alcohol and to refuse smoking. [herbalthera.com]
Preventing chronic laryngitis Prevention can be achieved by treatment of a gastric reflux condition, avoidance of smoking and smoke exposure, and moderate use of the voice. [ada.com]
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