Chronic laryngitis is a condition characterized by laryngeal inflammation lasting for longer than six weeks. It leads to waxing and waning dysphonia and hoarseness of voice and may be a precursor to laryngeal cancer. Vocal abuse, smoking, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and allergies are some of the causes of chronic laryngitis.
Chronic laryngitis (CL) is chronic laryngeal inflammation with an annual incidence of about 4 cases per population of 1000 . The most common cause of CL is laryngopharyngeal reflux but other causes include vocal abuse (singing, teaching), smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine intake, bacterial and fungal infections as well as occupations like glass blowing   .
Patients usually present with waxing and waning dysphonia, globus (foreign body) sensation in the throat, pain in the throat, constant urge to clear the throat, and dry cough. Symptoms of dysphonia include reduced volume, hoarseness, raw sensation, inability to modulate the voice and vocal fatigue.The symptoms depend on the severity of the inflammation. In severe infections, patients may have a fever, laryngeal edema, dyspnea and even stridor. Chronic laryngeal mucosal injury secondary to gastroduodenal reflux (GERD) of acidic contents has been implicated as a cause of CL in almost 50% of the patients . Clinical features of CL associated with GERD are called laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) as the main region affected is the laryngopharynx  .
Throat discomfort and pain upon emitting sounds There is often a habit of clearing ones throat but no evident sputum is coughed up The hoarseness is more evident when attempting to make a high pitched sound A long history of hoarseness and aphonia Hoarseness [americandragon.com]
This acid can cause hoarseness and a painful throat (known as pharyngitis. If you are concerned that you may have GERD that is causing a sore throat or hoarseness, you can do a free symptom assessment using the Ada app at any time. [ada.com]
Though hoarseness may seem like a minor inconvenience, it’s important to avoid the factors that irritate your larynx. [spokesman.com]
The main complaints - hoarseness, fatigue voice. In atrophic laryngitis, in addition,dryness in the throat. [medicalency.com]
- Throat Irritation
Chronic throat irritation 4. Dry hacking cough Signs: 1. Vocal cord edges loose their pearly shine and appear red and congested with dilated blood vessels on the superior surface. 2. Cord movements appear asynchronous and flabby on phonation 3. [specialist-ent.com]
Chronic Laryngitis Causes The most common causes of chronic laryngitis include: Bad habits that lead to throat irritation (smoking, for example). A prolonged cough due to cold, flu, or another respiratory ailment. [virginiaent.com]
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Stomach acids flow backward (reflux) into the esophagus and throat, irritating the vocal cords. Work-related exposure to chemicals or dusts that irritate the vocal cords. [askdoctork.com]
In the disorder, acidic fluids from the stomach flow backward (reflux) into the esophagus and throat, irritating the larynx. [onlymyhealth.com]
Treatment involves resting the voice, avoiding substances that irritate the throat, and treating any underlying conditions. See a doctor if symptoms are severe or do not improve after a couple of weeks. [medicalnewstoday.com]
- Laryngeal Disease
Gastroesophageal reflux and laryngeal disease.. Arch Surg, 128 (1993), pp. 1021-1026  Paterson WG, Murat BW. Combined Ambulatory Esophageal Manometry and Dual-Probe pH-Metry in Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Cough.. [bjorl.org.br]
[…] of this disease process. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Internal diseases with occasional laryngeal manifestations Tuberculosis (19, e49); rheumatoid diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (20, e50), systemic lupus erythematosus (21, e51), Wegener disease (22, e52), and laryngeal sarcoidosis (23); amyloidosis [aerzteblatt.de]
Learn More About Topic css id: Dysphagia Dysphagia means that you can’t swallow well. Many factors may cause dysphagia, and most are temporary and non-life-threatening. [entnet.org]
The most common symptoms were dysphonia (53%), pain/soreness (45%), globus sensation (40%), cough (33%), excessive throat clearing (28%), and dysphagia (32%). An otolaryngologist saw 93% of the cases. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms included hoarseness (8/12), dysphagia (6/12), and hemoptysis (1/12). There was poor correlation between oral lesions and esophageal or laryngeal involvement. [pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Fever, malaise, dysphagia, and throat pain may occur in more severe infections. Laryngeal edema, although rare, may cause stridor and dyspnea. [merckmanuals.com]
Dysphagia. Globus pharyngeus (feeling of a lump in the throat). Continual throat clearing. Myalgia. Fever. Fatigue and malaise. [patient.info]
The diagnosis of CL is based on clinical evaluation and patient history. It is vital for the otolaryngologist to inquire about the patient's occupation, allergies, vocal abuse and infections (tuberculosis). During the physical examination, an indirect, as well as, flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy is performed in all patients presenting with dysphonia lasting longer than 3 weeks. LPR can be diagnosed on the basis of the presenting symptoms and the appearance of laryngeal edema and arytenoid erythema on laryngoscopy . In addition, thick, sticky mucus may be noticed in the piriform sinuses and valleculae. A video-stroboscopy provides information about vocal fold anatomy, vibratory pattern and can help to differentiate between a sulcus vocalis from mucosal stiffness. If infective etiology is suspected then a complete blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate with sputum cultures and sensitivities for bacteria, fungi, and viruses should be ordered. Serology for autoimmune disorders like sarcoidosis should also be considered. Skin allergy testing is recommended if an allergic etiology is suspected. Barium swallow, manometry and 24 hour pH monitoring are recommended for the diagnosis of GERD.
Although plain X-ray neck has no role in the diagnosis of CL, plain X-ray chest may help to detect pulmonary tuberculosis or sarcoidosis as the cause of CL. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance scan are not routinely performed but may help to detect soft tissue changes, structural laryngeal changes, as well as, tumors.
Microlaryngoscopy under general anesthesia to visualize the larynx with a microscope may be necessary to detect tiny lesions and obtain tissue for biopsy, as well as for staining and cultures. The histological examination may reveal pachydermia (in long-term smoker's CL), amyloidosis, granulomatous lesions as well as malignancies. Lipoid proteinosis with hyaline deposits can mimic chronic laryngitis  on histology.
All patients received treatment with pantoprazole 80 mg daily for 8 weeks. One week after the end treatment, patients had a second ENT examination and a 24-hour pH monitoring using dual-channel probe. We included 33 patients (11 men, 22 women). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Inhalation is one of the most effective methods of treatment of chronic laryngitis. [herbalthera.com]
The prognosis in confirmed laryngitis is not favorable, as but few have the patience necessary to persist in the use of remedies until a cure is effected. [henriettes-herb.com]
However, any underlying conditions or infections may have to be treated accordingly Generally, the prognosis is excellent with suitable treatment; acute cases are normally self-limiting and last a couple of weeks, while chronic conditions may take longer [dovemed.com]
Before anti-tubercular drug use, in the 1950’s, it was a common and frequently fatal disease but it’s clinical features, age group involved and prognosis has changed over the last few decades. [scopemed.org]
Rarely, in severe infections such as those with herpes viruses, laryngeal erosion and necrosis may occur. [ 1 ] Prognosis In acute laryngitis, the prognosis is usually excellent. [patient.info]
Less frequently used treatments include intralesional injections or laser resection. Prognosis Acute Acute laryngitis may persist, but will typically resolve on its own within two weeks. Recovery is likely to be quick if the patient [en.wikipedia.org]
Skin allergy testing is recommended if an allergic etiology is suspected. Barium swallow, manometry and 24 hour pH monitoring are recommended for the diagnosis of GERD. [symptoma.com]
These findings show a possible role of H. pylori infection in the etiology of chronic laryngitis in certain patients and can be important for clinical diagnosis and treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] secretion in chronic laryngitis. ( 11081617 ) Ebenfelt A....Finizia C. 2000 34 Diagnosis and management of chronic laryngitis associated with reflux. ( 10718463 ) Hanson D.G....Jiang J.J. 2000 35 A possible role of helicobacter pylori infection in the etiology [malacards.org]
But, “its causes commonly are not recognized or are misdiagnosed because of lack of familiarity with some of the etiologies and suboptimal physical examination.” [enttoday.org]
Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of obesity on this condition. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiology. 12:200–208. pmid:11246581 View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 24. [journals.plos.org]
Key words Laryngitis insulin resistance epidemiology Republic of Korea This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. References 1. Hammer HF. [link.springer.com]
The Epidemiologic Survey Committee of the Korean Otolaryngologic Society prepared a CL diagnostic protocol. The laryngologic questionnaire asked whether the participants have had problems with their voice. [karger.com]
Pathophysiology : Dilated vessels are seen on superior surface of vocal cords. Movements are flabby and sluggish. Interstitial oedema and inflammatory exudates are present. [specialist-ent.com]
This suggests that differences in pathophysiology between LPR and GERD patients are part of the basis for the contrasting symptomology. [nature.com]
World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology. 2010;1:91–96. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar 21. El-Serag HB, Graham DY, Satia JA, Rabeneck L. Obesity is an independent risk factor for GERD symptoms and erosive esophagitis. [link.springer.com]
The basic pathophysiology is inflammation of the mucosa lining the vocal folds and larynx. If infection is involved, white cells aggregate to remove infectious material from the area. [patient.info]
Our data question the uniform presence of dilated intercellular space in patients with GERD and suggest a possible graded distal oesophageal variation of this pathophysiologic marker. [onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
By having a good comfort level in your throat you will be able to prevent your voice or throat from straining and therefore can prevent inflammation. [onlymyhealth.com]
For prevention of a disease it is necessary to strengthen immunity, to limit the use of spicy, fat, salty food, not to abuse alcohol and to refuse smoking. [herbalthera.com]
Preventing chronic laryngitis Prevention can be achieved by treatment of a gastric reflux condition, avoidance of smoking and smoke exposure, and moderate use of the voice. [ada.com]
These are some things to try to prevent laryngitis. [houstonent.com]
Therefore, symptoms of 96% of patients responded to treatment aimed at preventing reflux of gastric acid. The remaining patients with refractory symptoms had a partial response or no response or chose fundoplication. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
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- Oz F, Kalekoglu N, Karakullukçu B, Oztürk O, Oz B. Lipoid proteinosis of the larynx. J Laryngol Otol. 2002 Sep; 116(9):736-9