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Chronic Persistent Hepatitis


  • Hepatitis delta virus infection (HD-Ag in liver tissue and/or anti-HD in serum) was detected in 28 (14.7%) of the 191 patients tested on presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This book presents the facts as they are known today and, in areas where all the facts are not established, presents the well-founded opinions of those considered to be authorities.[books.google.com]
  • Serum markers of past or present hepatitis B infection were found initially in 14 patients: another two developed markers during their follow-up.[gut.bmj.com]
  • Others may have Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements Stomach pain Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes Some forms of hepatitis are mild, and others can be serious.[icdlist.com]
  • Symptoms & Causes Common symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis include feeling tired, pain in your joints, nausea, poor appetite, pain over your liver, and jaundice.[niddk.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include an enlarged liver, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dark urine Disease of the liver causing inflammation. Symptoms include an enlarged liver, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dark urine Hepatitis.[icd9data.com]
Down Syndrome
  • syndrome, leukemia and hepatitis, Ann. ‎ 27 ページ - Bayer, ME, Blumberg, BS, and Werner, B., Particles associated with Australia antigen in the sera of patients with leukemia, Down's syndrome and hepatitis, Nature, 318, 1057, 1968. ‎ 31 ページ - Integration[books.google.com]
  • First- and second-trimester evaluation of risk for Down syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:10--7. CDC. Protection against viral hepatitis: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1990;39(No. RR-2).[cdc.gov]
  • He found a higher prevalence of the protein in the blood of patients from developing countries, compared to those from developed ones, and noted associations of the antigen with other diseases like leukemia and Down Syndrome.[en.wikipedia.org]
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Alleged link between hepatitis B vaccine and chronic fatigue syndrome. Can Dis Wkly Rep 1991;17:215--6. Herroelen L, de Keyser J, Ebinger G. Central-nervous-system demyelination after immunisation with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.[cdc.gov]
  • Pruritus (cholestasis). Breast swelling (gynaecomastia), testicular atrophy, loss of libido and amenorrhoea due to endocrine dysfunction. Confusion and drowsiness (encephalopathy).[patient.info]
  • The adverse events observed in the milk thistle group encompassed impotence (one patient), pruritus (four patients), cephalea (three patients), and nausea and epigastric discomfort (one patient).[doi.org]


  • HBV DNA 2000 copies/mL along with an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) suggests further workup and possible therapy is needed. Viral copies/mL above 10,000 suggest ongoing hepatitis with greater risk for carcinoma.[library.med.utah.edu]
  • Alexandra Martin-Onraët, Carolina Perez-Jimenez and Grace Salazar-Tamayo, Current Recommendations on the Workup and Post-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV, HBV, and HCV in Healthcare Workers, Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases, 9, 2, (173), ([doi.org]
Ground Glass Appearance
  • Ground Glass Appearance Pathology Hepatitis C – Macro Vesicular Steatosis Hepatitis D – Micro Vesicular Steatosis Hepatitis E – Marked Cholestatis Extra Edge: Chronic Viral Hepatitis Clinical and laboratory features suggest progression of acute hepatitis[gradestack.com]
  • Liver biopsy specimen showing ground-glass appearance of hepatocytes in patient with hepatitis B. Liver biopsy with hematoxylin stain showing stage 4 fibrosis (ie, cirrhosis) in patient with hepatitis B.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Second, strong association between HLA-A1 antigen and CPH (Fisher exact 0.000022). Third, significant association between the immunoregulatory dysfunction and A1 antigen (Fisher exact 0.033).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Type 1 AIH in Caucasians is associated with the HLA-DR3 serotype, which is found in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B8 and HLA-A1 and in HLA-DR3 -negative patients with HLA-DR4.[doi.org]
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Furthermore, HB AG is detected in a high rate among cases with hepatocellular carcinoma suggesting the intimate causal relationship between hepatitis b virus and hepatocellular carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • carcinoma. ‎ 174 ページ - Francis DP, Hadler SC, Thompson SE, et al.[books.google.com]
  • Seite 486 - Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into the genome of liver cells in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma: studies in percutaneous liver biopsies and post-mortem tissue specimens. ‎[books.google.de]
  • Eradication of hepatitis C virus reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:1853–61. CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar 29.[doi.org]


  • This blood test may also be useful for monitoring immunosuppressive treatment in CAH.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Preliminary clinical and semiquantitative histological investigations were correlated with a significant difference in the histological characteristics and prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract To assess the prognosis of patients with severe chronic hepatitis after histologic examination had shown an improvement to chronic persistent hepatitis, we followed 52 such patients regularly for 54 4 months after the cessation of corticosteroid[nejm.org]


  • The most common etiologies are acute viral hepatitis A and B, medication overdose (e.g., acetaminophen), idiosyncratic drug reactions, ingestion of other toxins (e.g., amanita mushroom poisoning), and metabolic disorders (e.g., Reye's syndrome).[doi.org]
  • Hepatitis C epidemic and its waxing and waning course necessitated a relook and a change of terminology Current recommendations are to indicate "chronic hepatitis," the severity of necroinflammatory activity (grade), the extent of fibrosis (stage) and etiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Condition Definition Prevalence and Burden of Disease Etiology and Natural History Risk Factors/Indicators Rationale for Screening and Screening Strategies Interventions and Treatment Current Clinical Practice[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Improvements in socioeconomic and hygienic conditions have led to a change in its epidemiology worldwide.[doi.org]
  • Hepatic Disorders, Jaundice, and Hepatic Failure Sections: Hepatic Disorders, Jaundice, and Hepatic Failure: Introduction, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis of Specific Entities, Laboratory Evaluation, Imaging, Treatment, Disposition[web.archive.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 79. Updated by: Michael M.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hepatic Disorders, Jaundice, and Hepatic Failure Sections: Hepatic Disorders, Jaundice, and Hepatic Failure: Introduction, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis of Specific Entities, Laboratory Evaluation, Imaging, Treatment, Disposition[web.archive.org]
  • MECHANISMS OF HEPATOTOXICITY The pathophysiologic mechanisms of hepatotoxicity are still being explored, but are characterized by organic and functional damage of the liver.[doi.org]


  • The prevention of hepatitis B with vaccine: report of the Centers for Disease Control multi-center efficacy trial among homosexual men. ‎ 103 ページ - Barker LF. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.[books.google.com]
  • All measures aimed at preventing the transmission of HBV will prevent the transmission of hepatitis D.[web.archive.org]
  • Authors : WHO Overview These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, and complement similar recently published guidance by WHO on the prevention[who.int]

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