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Citrobacter


Presentation

  • Gram-negative organisms are present in less than 10% of cases of endocarditis in intravenous drug users. We present a case of tricuspid valve endocarditis in an intravenous drug user caused by Citrobacter diversus alone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we present a case of PLA caused by multidrug-resistant Citrobacter freundii, which is an unusual organism to be isolated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of bacteremia due to C. braakii in a 38-year-old woman with cervical cancer. She was admitted to our hospital with complaints of a fever, chills, and nausea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An infant with fulminant Citrobacter sepsis and respiratory failure is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we present 2 cases of peritonitis caused by this organism and fully treated with antibiotics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intravenous Drugs
  • In those cases of endocarditis, intravenous drug use has been associated with Citrobacter species. Gram-negative organisms are present in less than 10% of cases of endocarditis in intravenous drug users.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Also, the patient was not an intravenous drug user. Patient treatment included intravenous ceftriaxone (1 g twice a day) for 4 weeks combined with 5 days of amikacin.[jcm.asm.org]
Fulminant Sepsis
  • Pulmonary fat embolism is proposed as a possible cause of the sudden deaths as well as fulminant sepsis. 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences. KEYWORDS: Citrobacter freundii; Fat Embolism; Intravenous Fat Emulsions; Neonate; Sudden Death[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • Delivered at term, with a birth weight of 3,200 grams, he had been asymptomatic till this illness began. Clinical evaluation revealed a sick febrile infant, with a bulging anterior fontanel and no sutural separation.[scielo.br]
Sputum
  • RESULTS: Out of 563 isolates of Citrobacter, majority were from pus (48.1%), followed by urine (24.3%), sputum (20.3%), body fluids (05.2%), blood (02.1%). C. koseri was the predominant species [391 (70%)] isolated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common sources of citrobacter isolates were urine, sputum, and soft tissue exudates. Members of this genus can cause neonatal meningitis and, perhaps, gastroenteritis in both children and adults.[cid.oxfordjournals.org]
  • It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PATHOGENICITY Citrobacter is found in clinical bacteriology, as an opportunistic pathogen, not only in stools but also in urine, sputum, and specimens from bacteremia, meningitis, otitis media, wounds, abscesses, the throat and autopsies.[catalog.hardydiagnostics.com]
Right Upper Quadrant Pain
  • Clinical presentation is elusive with complaints of fever, right upper quadrant pain in the abdomen and hepatomegaly with or without jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intestinal Disease
  • BACKGROUND: Citrobacter strains are opportunistic pathogens often responsible for serious enteric as well as extra-intestinal diseases, and therefore the O-antigenic scheme, still in use in diagnostic identification, should be set for proper serotyping[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hepatomegaly
  • Clinical presentation is elusive with complaints of fever, right upper quadrant pain in the abdomen and hepatomegaly with or without jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The clinical examination on admission showed a temperature of 39.7 C and splenomegaly combined with hepatomegaly. Cardiac auscultation found an unknown aortic regurgitation murmur. There were no signs of severe sepsis or congestive heart failure.[jcm.asm.org]
Communicating Hydrocephalus
  • We studied a three-month-old infant with Citrobacter meningitis, who developed acute communicating hydrocephalus and multiple periventricular brain abscesses while on treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We studied a three-month-old infant with Citrobacter meningitis , who developed acute communicating hydrocephalus and multiple periventricular brain abscesses while on treatment.[scielo.br]
Vaginal Discharge
  • The gastrointestinal tract was considered the portal of entry, because the patient had a rectal fistula and other cultures such as urine and vaginal discharge incubated species other than C. braakii.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • The product exhibited significant acid/alkali and UV resistance as well as significant inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation at low concentrations of 0.1-1 μM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The patient died, despite intensive antibiotic treatment directed towards the causative organism, C. diversus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because of this organism's resistant nature, treatment for Citrobacter peritonitis may be difficult, and removal of the catheter may be necessary in refractory cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To investigate clinical settings, treatments, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Citrobacter species.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient developed multiorgan failure and died despite antibiotic treatment with in vitro active agents (ceftriaxone and meropenem).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In details, the treatment groups in sealed pack were handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofield treatment under laboratory conditions. Mr.[trivediscience.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis and treatment of neonatal scptieemia-a clinico bacteriological study of 100 cases. Indian Pediatr 1974; 11: 519–528. PubMed Google Scholar 13. Jain K, Prabhakar K, Ayyagiri A, Kumar L. Citrobacter meningitis: case report and a review.[link.springer.com]

Etiology

  • […] elderly, debilitated, and immunocompromised. 1-5 Current interest in pediatric Citrobacter infections has stemmed from the isolation of C diversus from neonates with meningitis and brain abscesses. 6-13 To our knowledge, there have been no reports of the etiologic[jamanetwork.com]
  • These characteristic features pointed to Citrobacter as the etiological agent. The species identification of C. diversus was made on the basis of indole and adonitol positivity, hydrogen sulphide negativity and utilization of malonate.[scielo.br]
  • The role of Citrobacter species in the etiology of PD-related peritonitis is often underestimated.[medsci.org]
  • The role of fungi, mainly Candida sp, as an etiologic agent has been increasingly important, especially in very-low-birth-weight infants 7 .[scielo.br]

Epidemiology

  • METHODS An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of C. braakii infection are still unknown because of the limitations in accurate identification by using currently available commercial biochemical testing and previously, only 6 cases of C. braakii infection[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we report a molecular study conducted in a tertiary care facility in southern Madrid, Spain, from 2009 to 2014 to investigate the epidemiology of CPCF.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Molecular epidemiologic analyses included pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and case study.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiological features and virulence of this organism call for vigilance and strict control measures. Key Words Citrobacter Neonate Sepsis Epidemiology This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.[link.springer.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Author information 1 Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Paul G.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early recognition of citrobacter head and neck infections, an awareness of the peculiarities of the clinical course of such infections, and timely surgical intervention can prevent catastrophic outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early detection and management may improve the final visual outcome and prevent the possibility of evisceration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: The identification of patients colonized or infected with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), in order to control and prevent the global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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