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Citrobacter Infection


Presentation

  • A 21-year-old primigravida presented to labor and delivery at 40 6/7 weeks' gestation complaining of ruptured membranes, painful uterine contractions, and fever. An intraamniotic infection was diagnosed and antibiotics begun.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case Report A 4-year-old male child presented with four day history of high grade intermittent fever and right upper abdominal pain. There were no other gastrointestinal or system complaints.[tropicalgastro.com]
  • We report an unusual case of Citrobacter braakii bacteremia in a patient with multiple comorbidities that presented to the hospital with cellulitis and pleural effusion. Blood cultures grew Citrobacter braakii.[eurekaselect.com]
  • In addition to a visual acuity of hand motions at presentation, he also complained of eye pain.[eyeworld.org]
  • The present study is taken up to study the infections and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Citrobacter spp. in our setup. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To characterise the infections caused by Citrobacter spp.[jemds.com]
High Fever
  • Earlier recently he suffered with high fever and vomiting. Doctor had diagnosed it as viral and just to be sure asked for urine culture test also. Though he is fine now and is not showing any signs of trouble.[whattoexpect.com]
Swelling
  • It indicates an air density (arrow) area in the right renal swelling parenchyma with dirty fat signs, suggesting acute emphysematous pyelonephritis Click here to view This case is the second reported case of EPN induced by C. freundii. [4] Bacteremia[onlinejets.org]
Fatigue
  • Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8431, Japan Click here for correspondence address and email Date of Submission 12-Feb-2012 Date of Acceptance 13-Feb-2012 Date of Web Publication 24-Oct-2013 Abstract A 79-year-old female with diabetes mellitus had general fatigue[onlinejets.org]
Intermittent Fever
  • Case Report A 4-year-old male child presented with four day history of high grade intermittent fever and right upper abdominal pain. There were no other gastrointestinal or system complaints.[tropicalgastro.com]
Asymptomatic
  • At follow-up visit, he is asymptomatic, without any complication. The liver size normalised and is seen without residual cavity after 6 months.[tropicalgastro.com]
Abdominal Tenderness
  • She was experiencing a state of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and had lower abdominal tenderness. A computed tomography (CT) scan for detection of the septic focus suggested acute emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) [Figure 1].[onlinejets.org]
Upper Abdominal Pain
  • Case Report A 4-year-old male child presented with four day history of high grade intermittent fever and right upper abdominal pain. There were no other gastrointestinal or system complaints.[tropicalgastro.com]
Tenderness in the Right Upper Quadrant
  • There was excessive tenderness in the right upper quadrant, with hepatomegaly measuring 14 cm in total span.[tropicalgastro.com]
Hepatomegaly
  • There was excessive tenderness in the right upper quadrant, with hepatomegaly measuring 14 cm in total span.[tropicalgastro.com]
  • Physical examination revealed pallor and a mild hepatomegaly. The cardiovascular system did not reveal any murmurs and the rest of the systemic examination was unremarkable.[jmedsoc.org]
Encephalopathy
  • On examination, child was febrile; however, he was hemodynamically stable, except of irritability and poor cooperation for the examination having grade I encephalopathy. Weight and height were 14.95 kg and 97.5 cm respectively.[tropicalgastro.com]

Workup

Citrobacter Koseri
  • Journal Clin Infect Dis 28:384-94 (1999) DOI: 10.1086/515106 Reference PMID: 12751719 Authors Prais D, Nussinovitch M, Harel L, Amir J Title Citrobacter koseri (diversus) meningitis in an otherwise healthy adolescent.[genome.jp]
  • Citrobacter Koseri is mainly associated with neonatal meningitis and fatal cerebral abscess in premature neonates.[tropicalgastro.com]
  • In our study Citrobacter koseri was the commonest isolate, a finding consistent with previous studies. 6 Some of the previous studies have reported Citrobacter freundii as the commonest isolate. 7 The rate of isolation of Citrobacter koseri was 45% and[jemds.com]
  • […] r My baby is 10 months old and his urine culture test has shown citrobacter koseri urine infection. Earlier recently he suffered with high fever and vomiting. Doctor had diagnosed it as viral and just to be sure asked for urine culture test also.[whattoexpect.com]
  • Citrobacter koseri (strain ATCC BAA-895 / CDC 4225-83 / SGSC4696) was isolated in 1983 in Maryland where it caused neonatal meningitis.[bacmap.wishartlab.com]

Treatment

  • In this case, the early diagnosis of the EPN using CT and immediate medical treatment, including urgent elective nephrectomy, were key to the favorable outcome.[onlinejets.org]
  • Adult peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis treatment recommendations: 2000 update. Perit Dial Int 20, 396 –411. [Google Scholar] Kim, B. N., Woo, J. H., Ryu, J. & Kim, Y. S. ( 2003 ; ).[jmm.microbiologyresearch.org]
  • In details, the treatment groups in sealed pack were handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofield treatment under laboratory conditions. Mr.[trivedieffect.com]
  • Keywords: Bacteremia, citrobacter braaki, gram-negative, staphylococcus, gram-positive organisms, antibiotic treatment.[eurekaselect.com]
  • For treatment of C. koseri infections, more active agents are available than for treatment of C. freundii infections.[antimicrobe.org]

Etiology

  • Citrobacter species are rarely described as etiological factors of intraamniotic infections, and vertical transmission has rarely been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • New and emerging etiologies for community-acquired pneumonia with implications for therapy: a prospective multicenter study of 359 cases. Medicine 1990;69:307-316. ‎ Pagina 94 - BROADDUS C, DAKE MD, STULBARG MS, et al.[books.google.ro]
  • The role of Citrobacter species in the etiology of PD-related peritonitis is often underestimated.[medsci.org]
  • Sometimes aspiration will confirm the etiology when CSF and blood cultures do not find any pathogen. After antibiotic treatment, some infants will require ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus.[antimicrobe.org]

Epidemiology

  • But it is perplexing to see a rare gram negative organism causing a multifocal abscess in liver in an otherwise normal child, which would indicate a change in epidemiology of these infectious agents.[tropicalgastro.com]
  • Klebsiella spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors. ClinMicrobiol Rev. 1998; 11(4): 589-603.[revistas.unimilitar.edu.co]
  • In this article, the taxonomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of citrobacter disease in children are reviewed. This is a preview of a remote PDF: Terence I. Doran.[paperity.org]
  • Clinical and molecular epidemiology of multidrug resistant Citrobacter species infections in French University hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007: 26: 439-41.[jemds.com]
  • Clinical and molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Citrobacter spp. infections in a French university hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007;26:439-41. 16. Shahid M.[ijpmonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology is not well understood, but a surface protein has been identified as a possible virulence factor among strains that cause citrobacter brain abscesses in neonates.[paperity.org]

Prevention

  • A comparison of ganciclovir and acyclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation. Am ] Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 146-152. ‎ Pagina 29 - Fang GD, Fine M, Orloff J, et al.[books.google.ro]
  • This practice is part of prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumoniae (VAP).[rroij.com]
  • […] control measures to prevent person-to-person transmission, such as hand washing, are the most important measures to prevent Citrobacter infection.[antimicrobe.org]
  • CTX-M in Citrobacter sp. which is important for epidemiological purpose because of its tendency for rapid dissemination to unrelated bacterial species. [4] Proper aseptic and barrier precaution along with appropriate antibiotic policy are needed to prevent[ijpmonline.org]

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