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Clostridium Tetani


Presentation

  • ., 1923 Providers NZFUNGI NZIB Provider Contribution Summary Biostatus Geo Schema Political Region Geo Region New Zealand Environmental Context Wild Occurrence Present Origin Indigenous Geo Schema Political Region Geo Region New Zealand Occurrence Present[nzor.org.nz]
  • The adjuvant effect of micro/nanoparticles appears to largely be a consequence of their uptake into antigen presenting cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Local tetanus is somewhat rare and presents with muscle contractions in a specific body region.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additional candidate genes involved in the establishment and maintenance of a pathogenic lifestyle of C. tetani are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Malnutrition
  • In these 19 cases, the following predisposing factors were described: venous insufficiency (n 6), sickle cell anemia (n 2), Hansen s disease (n 1), malnutrition (n 1), diabetes mellitus (n 1), trauma (n 1) and unknown factors (n 7).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In these 19 cases, the following predisposing factors were described: venous insufficiency (n 6), sickle cell anemia (n 2), Hansen's disease (n 1), malnutrition (n 1), diabetes mellitus (n 1), trauma (n 1) and unknown factors (n 7).[scielo.br]
Developmental Disabilities
  • Abstract Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • Cultures of the vitreous aspirate were positive for Bacillus species and C. tetani. He had received a tetanus toxoid booster at the emergency department.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complications may include long bone fractures, laryngospasm, difficulty breathing, aspiration pneumonia, and blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a blood clot (pulmonary embolism).[dentalcare.com]
  • Hyper salivation and swallowing problems cause aspiration and pneumonia with the next breath. Clostridium tetani is ubiquitous present in soil and intestine of humans and animals.[genwaybio.com]
  • Muscular spasms in the setting of tetanus are life-threatening and can lead to respiratory compromise, aspiration, and exhaustion. Benzodiazepines can be used in controlling the rigidity and spasms associated with tetanus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Venous Insufficiency
  • In these 19 cases, the following predisposing factors were described: venous insufficiency (n 6), sickle cell anemia (n 2), Hansen s disease (n 1), malnutrition (n 1), diabetes mellitus (n 1), trauma (n 1) and unknown factors (n 7).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The natural history, pathophysiology, and nonoperative treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. In: Rutherford RB (ed.), Vascular Surgery. Fourth edition, volume II, Philadelphia: WB Sauders, 1995 . [ Links ] 5.[scielo.br]
Skin Lesion
  • However, of 858 tetanus patients at Hospital Couto Maia (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil) aged 1 year or above, 2 had pressure ulcers and 17 had chronic ulceration of the lower limbs where these skin lesions were the ports of entry for Clostridium tetani.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many of these cases (16/25) involved long-term chronic skin lesions present from 8 months to over 10 years.[scielo.br]
Ear Discharge
  • The sample was obtained from an ear discharge of a case of otogenic tetanus in a 2-year-old male child. Based on the culture results of the ear discharge, Gram staining and virulence testing by genotyping, a diagnosis of tetanus was confirmed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chemosis
  • By the time the culture results became available, he had developed severe eye pain associated with marked orbital congestion, increased swelling and erythema of the lids, marked injection and chemosis of the conjunctiva, and subsequently underwent evisceration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Eye Pain
  • By the time the culture results became available, he had developed severe eye pain associated with marked orbital congestion, increased swelling and erythema of the lids, marked injection and chemosis of the conjunctiva, and subsequently underwent evisceration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Stereotyped Behavior
  • Some children with autism have also shown a significant reduction in stereotyped behaviors when treated with antimicrobials effective against intestinal clostridia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Listeria Monocytogenes
  • Two proteins with multiple leucine-rich repeat domains similar to Internalin A could be detected, a protein mediating binding of Listeria monocytogenes to host epithelial cells ( 29 ).[doi.org]
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae
  • Abstract It's known that diphtheria and tetanus are a contagious lethal diseases over the years, they caused by pathogenic microbes corynebacterium diphtheria and Clostridium tetani, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Evidence for the induced nature of the change from nontoxigenicity to toxigenicity in Corynebacterium diphtheriae as a result of exposure to specific bacteriophage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Despite treatment with high doses of penicillin, C. tetani was isolated after 16 days of intravenous penicillin in two cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment goals include interrupting the production of toxin, neutralizating the unbound toxin, controlling muscle spasms, managing dysautonomia and appropriate supportive management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We conclude that tetanus prevention must be included in the treatment of chronic skin ulcer patients, vaccination coverage should be increased among older people, and strategies aimed at improving coverage for all age groups must be reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The results showed that identification of C. tetani is possible using biochemical and molecular tools and that the strains of C. tetani isolated had not developed resistance against the antibiotics most often used for the treatment of tetanus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pre-emptive treatment for Clostridium tetani : importance of early recognition and treatment in the community. BMJ Case Rep. 2009 ; pii: bcr03.2009.1649.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]

Prognosis

  • In general, with heavy wound contamination the incubation period is shorter, the disease is more severe, and the prognosis is poorer. The spores germinate under anaerobic conditions and produce tetanospasmin, a powerful toxin.[dentalcare.com]
  • Overall, patients who develop tetanus quickly have a poor prognosis. For those who survive tetanus, they may have some residual deficits but the life span is not reduced. However, some patients may have hypotonia for life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis : Tetanus kills about 1 out of every 5 people infected with the bacteria. 1 Resources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). www.cdc.gov Medline Plus.US National Library of Medicine.[thevaccinemom.com]
  • Its diagnosis is based fundamentally on clinical criteria, and a positive prognosis depends on both establishing an early diagnosis and providing adequate therapy.[scielo.br]
  • The prognosis is dependent on incubation period, the time from spore inoculation to first symptom, and the time from first symptom to first tetanic spasm.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clostridium tetani is the etiological agent of tetanus, Clostridium botulinum is the etiological agent of botulism, and Clostridium perfringens is one of the etiological agent of gas gangrene.[bacmap.wishartlab.com]
  • Abstract Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Clostridium tetani, the etiologic agent of tetanus, produces a toxin that causes spastic paralysis in humans and other vertebrates.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clostridium tetani , the etiologic agent of tetanus, produces a toxin that causes spastic paralysis in humans and other vertebrates.[ajtmh.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology of tetanus in the marches region of Italy, 1992-1995. Bull. World Health Organization 1998 ;76:47-54. [ Links ] 4. Moneta G.L., Nehler M.R., Chitwood R.W., Porter J.M.[scielo.br]
  • Back to Bacteria Index Member of genus Clostridium Epidemiology There are about one million cases of tetanus reported worldwide and about 70 in the United States annually.[doctorslounge.com]
  • Epidemiological data Frequency United States: Reported Cases 1940s - .4 cases per 100,000 population 1970s - .05 cases per 100,000 2002 - .01 per 100,000 (from: ) Global Reports show about 1 million cases of tetanus every year, most of them in third world[web.uconn.edu]
  • Epidemiology The Incidence of tetanus is 0.03 cases per 100,000 individuals.[mechpath.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Currently, the pentavalent vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Hib and hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), is the most commonly used childhood vaccine worldwide. [4] [5] Pathophysiology Tetanus is a disease process that is characterized[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The natural history, pathophysiology, and nonoperative treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. In: Rutherford RB (ed.), Vascular Surgery. Fourth edition, volume II, Philadelphia: WB Sauders, 1995 . [ Links ] 5.[scielo.br]
  • J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69 : 292 – 301 . ( 1999 ) Pathophysiological properties of clostridial neurotoxins . The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins ( , eds), pp. 202 – 228 .[academic.oup.com]
  • Pathophysiology Clostridium tetani is an obligate, anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacillus. It is nonencapsulated and forms spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, and disinfectants.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • The disease can be prevented by immunization with tetanal toxoid and appropriate wound care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Vaccination with bacterial toxoid vaccines adsorbed on particulates adjuvants still are the best way to prevent this epidemic diseases from spread.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Following these developments, Edmond Nocard determined that the tetanospasmin antitoxin induced passive immunity and can be used for treatment as well as preventative vaccination against tetanus.[bioweb.uwlax.edu]
  • We conclude that tetanus prevention must be included in the treatment of chronic skin ulcer patients, vaccination coverage should be increased among older people, and strategies aimed at improving coverage for all age groups must be reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention : The best and only way to really prevent your child from getting tetanus is though vaccination . Vaccination against tetanus should be given every ten years .[thevaccinemom.com]

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