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Cocaine Abuse


Presentation

  • METHODS: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies in a woman with hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and a palsy of cranial nerve VI, associated with cocaine-induced destruction of her nasal and paranasal structures[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case a 46-year-old male with a history of cocaine abuse who presented with an acute stent thrombosis 2 days post-PCI likely as a result of cocaine abuse on the day of discharge following initial stent implantation for a non-ST-elevation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The various presenting conditions of cocaine abuse encountered within the head and neck region by the otorhinolaryngologist are then discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Initial management of cocaine users presenting with chest pain and ST segment elevation should include administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Unfortunately the data concerning this topic are very limited; the authors are then presenting a literature review, also discussing the clinical presentation and the possible therapeutical approach of a clinical case of bilateral sudden sensorineural[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Some of these symptoms include: Depression Fatigue Vivid and bad dreams Increase in appetite Intense cocaine cravings Agitation Treatment At The Canyon, our cocaine treatment program is designed to help you reconnect with life.[thecanyonmalibu.com]
  • Symptoms may begin within a few hours after you decrease or stop taking cocaine and may include the following: Severe sadness or fatigue Restlessness, nervousness, or anxiety Nausea or vomiting Trouble sleeping or difficulty waking up Unpleasant dreams[drugs.com]
  • Withdrawal symptoms may include drowsiness and fatigue, increased appetite, depression, irritability, mood swings, nightmares, and drug cravings.[americanaddictioncenters.org]
  • […] found to curb cocaine cravings and reduce use of cocaine especially in chronic, heavy users How it works: Increases the amount of GABA in the brain, a neurotransmitter that has a calming and relaxing effect Side effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, fatigue[addictionrecoveryguide.org]
Fever
  • RESULTS: Five women and 2 men (mean age, 41 years) with a history of chronic intranasal cocaine abuse (mean, 11 years; range, 5-20 years) presented with epiphora and in some cases acute onset of periorbital pain, edema, and erythema associated with fever[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Denies fever, lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, urinary frequency, concommitant or prior urethral discharge to the painful condition. He underwent right orchiectomy 13 years ago by testicular torsion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other side effects of cocaine abuse: A suppressed appetite, leading to malnutrition Frequent nose bleeds/nasal damage Interrupted sleep patterns Cardiovascular problems Heart palpitations Tremors or seizures Chest Pains Fever Vomiting High blood pressure[tpaddictiontreatment.com]
  • Less commonly, thyroid storm or severe infection may be considered in patients presenting with fever, tachycardia, agitation and altered mental status.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • His other complaints included productive cough with whitish blood-tinged sputum, frontal headache, mild subjective fever and mid-sternal chest discomfort. Past medical history included only hypertension. No home medications were used.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
Prostitute
  • I know 10 girls who became prostitutes because of coke. It’s much more extreme and degrading than we believe. At the time we don’t realize to what degree it destroys us.” —Shawne[drugfreeworld.org]
  • Involvement in illegal activities such as theft, prostitution and drug dealing. How Much Does Treatment Cost? The price of substance abuse treatment can vary.[recovery.org]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • Pulmonary team was consulted; the impression was consistent with pulmonary edema from questionable congestive heart failure (CHF), which could have been from the history of cocaine use rather than a primary pulmonary cause.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
Rigor
  • These programs may last for several months or even longer, and they may be as intensive as inpatient treatment or less rigorous, depending on the needs of the addict.[addiction-treatment.com]
Common Cold
  • Increased common cold-like symptoms and/or nosebleeds. Signs of involuntary movements (i.e. muscle tics). Changes in concentration and focus. Other Adverse Effects One of the most serious effects of cocaine abuse is heart muscle damage.[drugabuse.com]
Hoarseness
  • For example, the NIDA reports that those who snort the drug will increase their chances of: Losing their sense of smell Chronic nosebleeds Irritation or breakdown of the nasal septum Hoarseness and difficulty swallowing Those who inject the drug, dissolving[blackbearrehab.com]
  • Regularly snorting cocaine can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum leading to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. 15 Smoking crack cocaine damages the lungs and[drugabuse.gov]
  • Hoarseness: The caustic effect of cocaine can ruin one’s ability to speak clearly and comfortably.[luxury.rehabs.com]
  • […] respiratory failure strokes stomach pain and nausea heart attacks seizures The various means of using this illicit drug can produce different adverse reactions: Snorting the powder can lead to loss of the sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness[drugs.com]
Nasal Congestion
  • Review of systems was significant for rhinitis, nasal congestion, joint pain, and a febrile episode 2 days prior to admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nasal congestion. Additional Physical and Psychological Changes Additional short-term effects of cocaine may also become apparent in your loved one. You may notice or may hear your loved one complain of 3 : Muscle twitches, tremors. Dizziness.[luxury.rehabs.com]
Overeating
  • American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2000) provides criteria for diagnosing cocaine abuse and cocaine dependence as distinct disorders- the latter characterized by additional symptoms related to loss of control over drug use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Only subsequently, the patient admitted a cocaine abuse, through smoking and rubbing, over the last 15 days. Finally, after 15 days of interruption of cocaine abuse the oral lesions showed complete regression.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Over the last few decades, cocaine and morphine (heroin) have been among the primary causes of deaths related to drug abuse. Cocaine is frequently altered by dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On examination he was hypertensive and tachycardic with a systolic murmur over the 5th intercostal space at the level of the left mid-clavicular line.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In response to a survey conducted by Narcotics Anonymous, over 40 percent of cocaine addicts admitted that they have supplied the drug to co-workers.[thegooddrugsguide.com]
Nausea
  • RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman, a long-term cocaine abuser, presented with delirium, nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, and hypotension as manifestations of adrenal insufficiency (cortisol levels CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some of the most frequent are cardiovascular effects, including disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks; neurological effects, including headaches, seizures, strokes, and coma; and gastrointestinal complications, including abdominal pain and nausea[drugabuse.gov]
  • Some, but not all, of these include the following: Bloodshot eyes Loss of weight Runny nose Increased illnesses Increase in blood pressure Dilated pupils Increase in heart rate Increase in temperature Nosebleeds Nausea and/or vomiting Emotional There[thecanyonmalibu.com]
  • […] cause the following negative consequences: Hypersensitivity to light, sound, and touch Paranoia and anxiety Aggression, agitation, or irritability Loss of appetite Difficulty sleeping Increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure Tremors Nausea[diablovalleytreatment.com]
Vomiting
  • We report a case of a young man who presented to the emergency department with violent abdominal pain and several episodes of vomiting after using intranasal cocaine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman, a long-term cocaine abuser, presented with delirium, nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, and hypotension as manifestations of adrenal insufficiency (cortisol levels CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some, but not all, of these include the following: Bloodshot eyes Loss of weight Runny nose Increased illnesses Increase in blood pressure Dilated pupils Increase in heart rate Increase in temperature Nosebleeds Nausea and/or vomiting Emotional There[thecanyonmalibu.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • The abdominal pain was caused by a massive haemoperitoneum with no evidence of any underlying pathology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some of the most frequent are cardiovascular effects, including disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks; neurological effects, including headaches, seizures, strokes, and coma; and gastrointestinal complications, including abdominal pain and nausea[drugabuse.gov]
  • In addition to addiction, the side effects and risks associated with use of these drugs include: changes in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure headaches, abdominal pain, and nausea impaired judgment and greater risk of some sexually transmitted[heart.org]
  • pain headaches chest pain heart arrhythmia heart attack seizure stroke Cocaine addiction is also associated with medical conditions that include: respiratory diseases weakened immune system hepatitis gangrene of the bowels Cocaine affects neurological[healthline.com]
Loss of Appetite
  • In the beginning of an individual’s use, cocaine abuse may cause the following negative consequences: Hypersensitivity to light, sound, and touch Paranoia and anxiety Aggression, agitation, or irritability Loss of appetite Difficulty sleeping Increased[diablovalleytreatment.com]
  • Prolonged daily use causes sleep deprivation and loss of appetite. A person can become psychotic and begin to experience hallucinations.[drugfreeworld.org]
  • Users may be talkative, extraverted, and have a loss of appetite or need for sleep. The psychoactive and pleasurable effects are short-lived without continued administration.[drugs.com]
  • Cocaine decreases a person’s appetite, so you may notice that they do not eat when other people are eating or that they may eat less than they normally would. [6] Other side effects of using cocaine may also lead to loss of appetite, such as nausea and[wikihow.com]
  • Quitting use of a substance may lead to withdrawal effects such as physical sickness, temporary personality changes, loss of appetite, insomnia , nausea, mood swings , and other disturbances.[goodtherapy.org]
Chest Pain
  • Initial management of cocaine users presenting with chest pain and ST segment elevation should include administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chest pain/myocardial ischemia: Cocaine increases platelet aggregation so aspirin should be administered to patients with chest pain thought to be ischemic.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • While chest pain related to cocaine use is a common reason for seeking medical care, occasional use is rarely associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) unless there is pre-existing coronary artery disease.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • Check any change in health - eg, weight, breathing, palpitations, chest pains. Check the patient's skin for burns and injecting damage and their nose for septum damage.[patient.info]
Hypertension
  • Clinically, although cocaine abuse is associated with elevated blood pressure, persistent accelerated hypertension reaching levels diagnostic of malignant hypertension is uncommon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On examination he was hypertensive and tachycardic with a systolic murmur over the 5th intercostal space at the level of the left mid-clavicular line.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The outcome of interest, PAS, was identified as any indication in diagnosis field of ICD-9-CM codes for: placental abruption (641.2), oligohydramnios (658.0), placental infarction (656.7, 656.8, 656.9), gestational hypertension (642.3, 642.9), preeclampsia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dose-dependent tachycardia, hypertension along with increased arousal is the first physiological response to cocaine use.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
  • There were significant differences between crack-cocaine cases and controls in age (48.7 years vs. 55 years) (P 0.0001), male gender (65.6% vs. 40.9%) (odds ratios, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.22-2.21), arterial hypertension (61.1% vs. 83.9%) (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • Thus, cocaine-related myocardial insults could be caused by coronary atherosclerosis, coronary spasm, or both; tachycardia and hypertension may increase myocardial work.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Arrhythmias: Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia and usually responds to control of agitation and IV fluids. ACLS protocols for significant tachycardias and bradycardias should be followed.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Dose-dependent tachycardia, hypertension along with increased arousal is the first physiological response to cocaine use.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
  • Binge user - frequent repeated use causes tachycardia, twitching, insomnia and anxiety. The patient may experience hallucinations or persecutory delusions that can result in dangerous aggression.[patient.info]
Irregular Heart Rhythm
  • Some of the most frequent and severe health consequences of overdose are irregular heart rhythm, heart attacks, seizures, and strokes.[drugabuse.gov]
  • Some of the most frequent and severe health consequences resulting from an overdose involve the heart and blood vessels (for example, irregular heart rhythms and heart attacks) and damage to the nervous system (seizures and strokes are two such possibilities[michaelshouse.com]
  • Heart risk Cocaine abuse can lead to acute cardiovascular or cerebrovascular emergencies, such as an irregular heart rhythm, heart attack or stroke, which may result in sudden death.[drugs.com]
Hypotension
  • RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman, a long-term cocaine abuser, presented with delirium, nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, and hypotension as manifestations of adrenal insufficiency (cortisol levels CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypotension: Hypotension in a cocaine abuser is most often due to volume depletion. IV fluid resuscitation should be initiated with frequent reassessments.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Dysrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, hypertension, endocarditis, hypotensive shock, cerebral vascular accidents and dilated cardiomyopathy are several cardiovascular complications due to cocaine abuse [ 1 ].[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
Blurred Vision
  • Someone taking both of these drugs may have impaired motor functions and blurred vision in conjunction with suppressed appetite and lack of sleep.[americanaddictioncenters.org]
Muscle Twitch
  • Some cocaine users report feelings of restlessness, irritability, anxiety, panic, and paranoia. 2 Users may also experience tremors, vertigo, and muscle twitches. 2 Severe medical complications can occur with cocaine use.[drugabuse.gov]
  • […] side effects of cocaine abuse: A suppressed appetite, leading to malnutrition Frequent nose bleeds/nasal damage Interrupted sleep patterns Cardiovascular problems Heart palpitations Tremors or seizures Chest Pains Fever Vomiting High blood pressure Muscle[tpaddictiontreatment.com]
  • Other health effects of cocaine use include: constricted blood vessels dilated pupils nausea raised body temperature and blood pressure fast or irregular heartbeat tremors and muscle twitches restlessness Long-Term Effects Some long-term health effects[drugabuse.gov]
  • Some of these physical health indicators include: dilated pupils nausea raised body temperature and blood pressure faster heartbeat tremors and muscle twitches restlessness fatigue Other symptoms may include irritability, lack of pleasure, anxiety and[michaelshouse.com]
Delusion
  • When high doses are used or the drug is used in binges, symptoms of cocaine use often include disorientation, delusions, paranoia, antisocial behavior and aggressiveness .[narconon.org]
  • Dilated pupils Increased heart rate Profuse sweating Rapid weight loss Lacking the need for sleep Seizures Elevated body temperature Cognitive symptoms : Ability to hyperfocus Heightened startle response Intensified alertness Psychosis Hallucinations Delusions[sonorabehavioral.com]
  • The US National Institute of Health lists the possible effects of cocaine as: “agitation, hallucinations, delusions, violence, suicidal and homicidal thinking.” Crack cocaine use is described as making these symptoms more frequent and intense.[narcononarrowhead.org]
  • This can lead to violent or paranoid behavior, anxiety or depression, hallucinations, delusions, and "coke bugs"—a sensation of insects crawling over the skin.[tpaddictiontreatment.com]
Visual Hallucination
  • Almost 20% of patients report tactile or visual hallucinations. Their most common hallucination is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling on the skin.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Examples of these psychotic symptoms brought on by cocaine abuse include delusions (false beliefs) and visual hallucinations. 5 You might feel as though bugs are crawling on your skin, for example.[luxury.rehabs.com]
Aggressive Behavior
  • Examples of such symptoms may include: Increased anxiety Increased irritability Intense and overwhelming cravings Vivid dreams and nightmares Excessive drowsiness Increase in appetite Sudden aggressive behavior Extreme paranoia Effects of cocaine overdose[sonorabehavioral.com]
  • Chaotic and aggressive behavior. Injuries due to violence. Involvement in illegal activities such as theft, prostitution and drug dealing. How Much Does Treatment Cost? The price of substance abuse treatment can vary.[recovery.org]
Suicidal Ideation
  • It helps to manage unpleasant cocaine withdrawal symptoms, as well as potentially dangerous ones such as new-onset depression and suicidal ideation.[recovery.org]
Manic Behavior
  • behavior Any of these symptoms can be attributed to other causes, but if you are concerned that there is a drug problem involved, it’s best to be safe rather than sorry, and speak honestly with the person you are concerned for.[diablovalleytreatment.com]
Epistaxis
  • Epistaxis or nosebleed. Sinusitis. Perforated nasal septum. Depression. Suicidal ideation. 1 Irritability. Inability to feel pleasure. Inability to concentrate. A loss of interest in previously enjoyed hobbies. Social isolation.[recovery.org]
Stroke
  • BACKGROUND: Stroke in crack-cocaine abusers is increasingly recognized. We aimed to identify significant differences in stroke risk factors, characteristics, and outcomes between hospitalized stroke patients with and without crack-cocaine abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Copyright 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Neurological complications of cocaine abuse, such as seizures, headache, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, can be disastrous as a result of uncontrolled vasoconstriction and vasculitic damage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The major findings consist of vascular complications such as stroke, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages and cerebral ischemia. Persons with underlying arteriovenous malformation or aneurysm are especially prone for such events.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: We included 26 patients with chronic cocaine abuse separated into two groups according to duration of intake--from six months up to one year and more than a year, with and without only vascular incidents (TIA, stroke, myocardial infarction),[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Irritability
  • ., irritability, difficulty concentrating).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These steps can help relieve the anxiety and irritability.[narcononarrowhead.org]
  • This can lead to increased irritability, restlessness, panic attacks, paranoia, and even a full-blown psychosis, in which the individual loses touch with reality and experiences auditory hallucinations. 2 With increasing doses or higher frequency of use[drugabuse.gov]
  • Teens going through treatment will be irritable, angry, sad, and generally steeped in a rollercoaster of emotions.[paradigmmalibu.com]
  • Irritability. Anxiety. Paranoia. Panic attacks. Cocaine abuse can lead to heart rhythm problems, heart attacks, and even death. The drug can yield dangerous neurological effects, including seizures, headaches and strokes.[mentalhelp.net]
Seizure
  • A fast GC/MS method involving a liquid:liquid extraction procedure with tertbutylmethylether (TBME) is proposed for the determination of some alkaloids in cocaine leaves, cocaine seizures and biological samples.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Unsuspected cocaine abuse is common and may provoke prolonged status epilepticus, particularly if there is a low seizure threshold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Neurological complications of cocaine abuse, such as seizures, headache, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, can be disastrous as a result of uncontrolled vasoconstriction and vasculitic damage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings suggest that the observations--that underlying heart disorders were not sinequanon for the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine; the brain and cardiac consequences were not restricted to parenteral use of the drug; the development of seizures[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures 2 (see " National Overdose Deaths: Number of Deaths from Cocaine "). Many cocaine users also use alcohol, and this combination can be particularly dangerous.[drugabuse.gov]
Agitation
  • Benzodiazepines should be administered if agitation is present.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • It is an agitated confusional state associated with potentially lethal hyperthermia. There is no evidence to support the use of antipsychotic agents for cocaine dependence.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • Symptoms of long-term cocaine abuse can include depression, agitation, nervousness, tiredness but unable to sleep. The person may feel seriously distressed about life without good reason. They will have strong cravings for the drug.[narconon.org]
  • Some of these symptoms include: Depression Fatigue Vivid and bad dreams Increase in appetite Intense cocaine cravings Agitation Treatment At The Canyon, our cocaine treatment program is designed to help you reconnect with life.[thecanyonmalibu.com]
Headache
  • Neurological complications of cocaine abuse, such as seizures, headache, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, can be disastrous as a result of uncontrolled vasoconstriction and vasculitic damage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some of the most frequent are cardiovascular effects, including disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks; neurological effects, including headaches, seizures, strokes, and coma; and gastrointestinal complications, including abdominal pain and nausea[drugabuse.gov]
  • It may cause a headache or ringing in your ears. If you inject cocaine, you may have an increased risk of other medical conditions, such as an HIV or hepatitis.[drugs.com]
  • The drug can yield dangerous neurological effects, including seizures, headaches and strokes. Some users experience gastrointestinal difficulties such as nausea and vomiting.[mentalhelp.net]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • dysfunction F13.982 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic use, unspecified with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced sleep disorder F13.988 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic use, unspecified with other sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced disorder[icd10data.com]
  • Sexual dysfunction, including difficulties with arousal, orgasm and libido are common.[mentalhelp.net]
  • […] and seizures Heart disease and heart attack Stroke Lung damage and disease (respiratory failure and difficulty breathing) Damage to the nasal septum (when snorting) Irritability and mood disturbances Auditory and tactile hallucinations ("coke bugs") Sexual[cesar.umd.edu]
  • Sexual dysfunction. Epistaxis or nosebleed. Sinusitis. Perforated nasal septum. Depression. Suicidal ideation. 1 Irritability. Inability to feel pleasure. Inability to concentrate. A loss of interest in previously enjoyed hobbies. Social isolation.[recovery.org]

Workup

  • Clinical workup documented severe sleep apnea, which was treated by noninvasive ventilation and resulted in withdrawing cocaine abuse. Undiagnosed sleep disorders may trigger surreptitious psychostimulant abuse in vulnerable individuals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Laboratory workup revealed an elevated Brain natriuretic peptide; urine toxicology was positive for cocaine. 2D-echocardiogram showed dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac catheterization excluded angioischemic cause.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The hypercoagulable workup was negative. A skin biopsy taken from the left thigh was consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Initial laboratory workup at admission was insignificant except for elevated brain nautriuretic peptide of 894 ng/L and positive urine toxicology screen for cocaine.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]

Treatment

  • Two hundred and twenty-three cases (users who sought treatment for primary cocaine abuse) and 223 controls (users who did not seek treatment) were interviewed in Italy. A semistructured interview was created.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ancillary treatments show little effects but are understudied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Risks of adverse effects prompted funding for novel treatment programs. More recently, media attention has shifted elsewhere, and specialized treatment resources have grown scarce.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Using microarray and rt-QPCR assays, we identified candidate genes that are differentially expressed with lithium treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment can represent a challenge for physicians and there are no guidelines based on randomised controlled trials.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Prognosis depends on the type and severity of complications. Intracranial hemorrhage often results in significant disability. Rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia may lead to permanent renal failure.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) Substance use may lead to a fatal overdose. Some people start taking the substances again (relapse) after they have stopped.[mountsinai.org]

Etiology

  • Lines of research That Could be Addressed: In this challenging clinical case we presented an alternative and new etiologic diangosis for the acute scrotum which the main etiologic factor remains testicular torsion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Herein, a case of an 18-year-old male patient with a 15-day history of persistent painful ulcers and aphthous lesions of unknown etiology and with no other remarkable manifestations, is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • History of passive cocaine smoke exposure elicited postoperatively was the possible etiology leading to complete fundal rupture. This case is an eye opener as regards to ill effects of drug abuse even though passive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Except for a few incidents of vasculitis, the etiology of cocaine- related cerebrovascular events is still unclear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • DISCUSSION: The clinical characteristics of self-mutilation are manifold and there is a lack of agreement about its etiology. The complex behavior associated with cocaine abuse may be one cause of self-mutilation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract Epidemiological evidences indicated that substance abuse disorders are increasingly prevalent among Nigerians.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Social & Epidemiological Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, Canada M5S 2S1; Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001." Neuropsychopharmacology 30.5 May 2005: 1006-1018. Office of National Drug Control Policy. Apr. 6, 2005. Richardson, G.A., L. Goldschmidt, and C.[medicinenet.com]
  • Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory aspects of wound botulism. N Engl J Med 1973;289:1005-10. Disclaimer All MMWR HTML documents published before January 1993 are electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML.[cdc.gov]
  • One study found that cocaine users had a moderate pattern of use (in terms of number of days of use per month) compared with heroin users. [ 3 ] Epidemiology Overall cocaine use has dropped compared to 2008/9 figures although this fall appears to be levelling[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The postmortem human brain constitutes a unique resource that can be exploited to gain insights into the pathophysiology of complex disorders such as drug addiction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiologic background and reports from the literature dealing with orbital involvement in this condition are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Cocaine and the kidney: a synthesis of pathophysiologic and clinical perspectives". Am J Kidney Dis. vol. 35. 2000. pp. 783. (A good review of the pathophysiologic effects of cocaine on the kidney and specific complications involving the kidneys.)[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • PubMed View Article Google Scholar Abraham JR, Butany J, Leong S, Luk A, Phillips K, Soor GS: Cocaine cardiotoxicity a review of the pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment options. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2009, 9 (3): 177-196. 10.1007/BF03256574.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]

Prevention

  • KEYWORDS: Crack-cocaine; Dependence; Intervention; Prevention; Review; Treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The mainstay of treatment focuses on supportive care and prevention of drug absorption. Ventricular dysrhythmias or torsade de pointes should be treated according to advanced cardiac life support guidelines.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • More than anyone else, parents hold the key to preventing drug abuse by their children. Children listen to what their parents say, even if they don’t appear to. Take action now to prevent abuse of or eventual addiction to cocaine.[narconon-mexico.org]
  • It is possible to supplement selenium during the early period of cocaine dependence to prevent hard vascular accidents, which are common after more than one year of cocaine abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Remember, seeking help early on can make a world of difference for the user and may prevent serious long-term side effects from occurring as a result of cocaine addiction. Weight loss is a common side effect of cocaine abuse.[cocaine.org]

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