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Cocaine Dependence

Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Use of Cocaine Dependence Syndrome


Presentation

  • The behavioral effects of the mixed μ/κ MCL-741, an aminothiazolomorphinan, in attenuating cocaine-induced locomotor activity will be presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Primary symptoms of cocaine dependence may include: agitation and restless behavior depressed mood fatigue generalized malaise increased appetite vivid and unpleasant dreams slowing of activity During withdrawal, there can be powerful, intense cravings[drug.addictionblog.org]
  • […] the drug is discontinued immediately, the user will experience what has come to be known as a "crash" along with a number of other cocaine withdrawal symptoms, including paranoia, depression, exhaustion, anxiety, itching, mood swings, irritability, fatigue[en.wikipedia.org]
  • A few of the side effects that various cannabinoid strains can provide relief from include nausea, depression, fatigue and insomnia.[marijuanadoctors.com]
  • Symptoms can include: Depression Anxiety Fatigue Trouble concentrating Increased hunger Cravings for the drug Nightmares Chills, nerve pain, muscle aches A cocaine overdose is more difficult to treat.[webmd.com]
Fever
  • The abuser may complain of pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site or fever .[emedicinehealth.com]
  • If any of the following situations occur after using cocaine, you should seek emergency medical treatment: Foul, itchy or bloody discharge from the sinuses A sinus infection that causes facial or severe sinus pain A chronic cough paired with fever Phlegm[addictions.com]
Nausea
  • OBJECTIVE: To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could be a useful way to boost the diagnosis of cocaine dependence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] come to be known as a "crash" along with a number of other cocaine withdrawal symptoms, including paranoia, depression, exhaustion, anxiety, itching, mood swings, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, an intense craving for more cocaine, and in some cases nausea[en.wikipedia.org]
  • A few of the side effects that various cannabinoid strains can provide relief from include nausea, depression, fatigue and insomnia.[marijuanadoctors.com]
Loss of Appetite
  • Signs of Cocaine Dependence Isolation (“hiding out”) Abnormal sleeping habits Loss of appetite, eating less than usual Unexplained weight loss Erratic behavior Unpredictable mood swings Constant sniffling/running nose Nosebleeds Anxiety, restlessness,[discoveryplace.info]
  • Effects of Use A person who is addicted to cocaine may experience the following symptoms and effects from coke : Confusion Dilated pupils Excess energy Increase in heart rate and blood pressure Loss of appetite Paranoia Rapid heartbeat Rapid speech Runny[thegooddrugsguide.com]
  • Other physical side effects include: Racing heart rate Dilated pupils Rapid breathing Insomnia Loss of appetite Nose bleeds Irregular heart rhythms Asthma Psychological side effects of using cocaine are numerous as well.[addictionhope.com]
Tachycardia
  • The use of cocaine can cause erratic mood swings, paranoia , sleeplessness (insomnia), psychosis, high blood pressure, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), anxiety, panic attacks , cognitive impairments , and drastic changes in personality that can lead to[discoveryplace.info]
  • Record 1, Synonyms, English Record 1, Textual support, English Record number: 1, Textual support number: 1 DEF Cocaine dependency with such evidence of cocaine intoxication as agitation, loquaciousness, overestimation of physical and mental capacities, tachycardia[btb.termiumplus.gc.ca]
  • Binge user - frequent repeated use causes tachycardia, twitching, insomnia and anxiety. The patient may experience hallucinations or persecutory delusions that can result in dangerous aggression.[patient.info]
Auditory Hallucination
  • hallucinations (imaginary sounds that seem real) Formication – The sensation that insects are crawling under the skin Pyschosis (as you already mentioned earlier) Reproductive System Damage Sexual dysfunction in both males and females Menstrual cycle[castlecraig.co.uk]
  • By contrast, low-frequency TMS seemed to tamp down the auditory hallucinations that can plague schizophrenics.[sciencemag.org]
Agitation
  • Primary symptoms of cocaine dependence may include: agitation and restless behavior depressed mood fatigue generalized malaise increased appetite vivid and unpleasant dreams slowing of activity During withdrawal, there can be powerful, intense cravings[drug.addictionblog.org]
  • Symptoms of Cocaine Dependence ” Compulsive seeking and usage of cocaine ” Increased tolerance to its effects ” Symptoms of withdrawal upon quitting ” Depression ” Irritability and agitation ” Lack of motivation ” Sleeping problems ” Anxiety and panic[allaboutcounseling.com]
  • When you give up cocaine, you may feel agitated, depressed, exhausted and angry. Cocaine withdrawal can cause an intense emotional and physical crash that drives many addicts back to using.[luxury.rehabs.com]
Headache
  • Three (20%) subjects experienced side effects related to disulfiram, including headache, slurred speech and drowsiness. One (6.6%, p 0.282) subject reported headache with placebo.[scielo.br]
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat epilepsy and migraine headaches, also could be the first reliable medication to help treat cocaine dependence. The study, led by Bankole A. Johnson, DSc.[sciencedaily.com]
  • […] short-term effects of cocaine may include: Extreme sensitivity to touch, sound, and sight Intense happiness Anger/irritability Paranoid feeling Decreased appetite People who use cocaine often may also have more serious side effects and health problems, like: Headaches[webmd.com]

Treatment

  • Multifamily therapy may be a powerful method to engage patients families in treatment and promote treatment retention, especially in the early, intensive phases of treatment for cocaine dependency.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • BACKGROUND: Dual dependence on opiate and cocaine occurs in about 60% of patients admitted to methadone maintenance and negatively impacts prognosis (Kosten et al. 2003. Drug Alcohol Depend. 70, 315).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Not all cocaine abusers become dependent on the drug.[minddisorders.com]
  • Long Term Prognosis of Cocaine Addiction Rehabitation The prognosis for minor complications of cocaine use is good if further drug use can be stopped completely.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • (Etiology) The mechanism of Cocaine Dependence is not fully understood, because it affects each individual differently (and sometimes, not at all) Repeated use can result in dependence, as the user will, over time, need more cocaine to achieve the same[dovemed.com]
  • In the past, most attention in etiologic research on drug dependence has been fixed upon risks of first drug use or first appearance of drug dependence.[nature.com]

Epidemiology

  • Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2 : 244–268 Anthony JC, Helzer JE. (1995): Epidemiology of drug dependence. In Tsuang M, Tohen M, Zahner G (eds), Psychiatric Epidemiology.[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in the pathophysiology of alcohol and drug dependence and have been related to early life stress driving developmental programming of neuroendocrine systems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Paredes A, Gorelick DA: Physiological and Pathophysiological Effects of Cocaine: (Introduction). Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse (in press). Google Scholar 8. Mody CK, Miller BL, Mclntyre HB, Cobb SK, Goldberg MA: Neurologic complications of cocaine abuse.[link.springer.com]
  • […] substances. [1] There are 5 categories of stimulant-related disorders according to DSM-5. [1] They are as follows: Stimulant use disorder Stimulant intoxication Stimulant withdrawal Other stimulant-induced disorders Unspecified stimulant-related disorder Pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Since there is no approved medication for cocaine withdrawal or relapse prevention, our focus was on relapse prevention counselling using cognitive behavioural principles. The outcome was variable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although other treatments are being explored, thus far, the combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy has elicited the best results for treating cocaine dependence with respect to patient retention and relapse prevention following abstinence.[eurekaselect.com]

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