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Colonic Disease


Presentation

  • Normal findings were present in 42.4%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fistula from the colon to the bladder How would a colovesicular fistula present? Air or stool would be present in the bladder --Pneumaturia[quizlet.com]
  • Small intestinal obstruction without colonic dilation can be the mode of presentation in a variety of colonic diseases, including carcinoma, diverticulitis, and colitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract To determine whether double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) or fibreoptic examination should be the first-line investigation for colonic disease 76 consecutive patients presenting for the first time to the outpatient clinic with symptoms of colonic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: The halo sign was present in 74.5% (38/51) patients with benign and 7.3% (3/41) patients with malignant bowel disease. The presence of the halo sign was 75.4% sensitive and 92.5% specific for benign bowel wall thickening.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Constipation
  • Constipation is a common clinical feature of RDEB, but fetal complications of chronic constipation are rarely reported. To the author's best knowledge, it has not been reported or recognized in the English literature previously.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It's very important for a person who has had the pull-through surgery to avoid constipation. Constipation can lead to enterocolitis or infections of the intestine that can be life threatening.[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • Stool softeners : Over-the-counter and prescription medicines can soften the stool; stool softeners can affect constipation, but not always.[webmd.com]
  • Constipation Constipation is defined as small, hard, difficult, or infrequent stools.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Increasing water consumption and fiber intake may help with constipation and reduce lower bowel pressure. These proactive steps can reduce your symptoms and help you avoid surgery.[dukehealth.org]
Abdominal Pain
  • The most common clinical manifestations of colonic disease in AIDS are diarrhea, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and abdominal pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common symptoms were abdominal pain or distention in 84 patients (38.88%). Sixty five patients (30.09%) had hepatosplenic schistosomiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Eight case patients had abdominal pain; one had bloody diarrhea. Histopathologic examination results included nonspecific mucosal inflammation in four case patients, wall edema in one, and no abnormality in one.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abdominal pain can be crampy, achy or sharp, and can be intermittent or constant. Abdominal pain related to colon disease may come and go in waves and may be accompanied by bloating.[livestrong.com]
  • Abdominal pain, fever, and constipation are common symptoms. Colon bleeding (hemorrhage): Multiple potential colon problems can cause bleeding. Rapid bleeding is visible in the stool, but very slow bleeding might not be.[webmd.com]
Chronic Diarrhea
  • Colonoscopy performed for chronic diarrhea in an HIV-infected child Rectal Polyp Rectal Polyp Rectal Polyp Rectal Polyp Foreign Body Foreign Body Foreign Body Foreign Body Removal with snare Juvenile Polyp Stalk Juvenile Polyp Stalk Juvenile Polyp Juvenile[naspghan.org]
  • diarrhea for 3 years associated with significant weight loss.[acgcasereports.gi.org]
  • Evaluation of chronic diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:1119-1126. Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America. Types of Crohn’s disease and associated symptoms. Accessed 6/4/15 at: Burakoff RS. Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease.[crohnsdisease.com]
  • Clinically patients have chronic diarrhea (sometimes bloody) associated with tenesmus, pain and fever 1. C-reactive protein levels are usually normal 6.[radiopaedia.org]
Blood in Stool
  • stools may be an indication of rectal bleeding and should be evaluated by a doctor.[healthline.com]
  • Other screening tests include: annual fecal occult blood tests stool DNA testing flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years CT colonography every 5 years These frequency recommendations depend on the individual's risk of colon cancer.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Moderate : four to six stools a day with more blood in stools than for mild disease. No anaemia, pulse rate not above 90, no fever and normal ESR and CRP.[patient.info]
Dyspepsia
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy should be considered if there is co-existing dyspepsia. Initial investigations include: FBC, renal function and electrolytes, LFTs, ESR and CRP.[patient.info]
Suggestibility
  • Plain abdominal roentgenograms may lead the unwary physician into errors of diagnosis and treatment by suggesting primary small bowel disease. Barium enema examination of the colon will keep the wary physician out of such traps.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The colonoscopic appearance was suggestive of schistosomiasis in 98 of these patients (45.37%), Schistosoma mansoni ova in stool was detected in only 24 of these 216 patients (11.11%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The absence of a detectable relationship between adenoma number and age (over the range studied) suggests that most tumours may be initiated relatively early in the patient's life, perhaps at a time of particular susceptibility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Evaluation of recent trends suggests a shift toward minimally invasive techniques in this disease setting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, findings concerning the growth and morphological features of these lesions in human studies suggest that ACF are highly heterogeneous in nature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Colon capsule endoscopy is feasible to perform after incomplete colonoscopy and guides further workup in clinical practice. Gastrointest Endosc 2014;79:307-16. [ Crossref ] [ PubMed ] Pioche M, de Leusse A, Filoche B, et al.[atm.amegroups.com]
Entamoeba Histolytica
  • Entamoeba histolytica overcomes this protective barrier and causes ulcerations, allowing the parasite to disseminate to the liver and form abscesses. An in vitro model is used to study the interaction between E. histolytica and colonic mucins.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Diarrhea: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments Gallstones: Causes, Treatment and Prevention Hemorrhoids: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Symptoms & Treatment Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Symptoms, Treatment[livescience.com]
  • Radiotherapy can be used as a standalone treatment to shrink a tumor or destroy cancer cells, or alongside other cancer treatments. Radiation treatments are not often used until a later stage.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Treatment will be continued for a period of 8 weeks. Treatment success will be defined as a complete response to therapy at the end of eight weeks.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Plain abdominal roentgenograms may lead the unwary physician into errors of diagnosis and treatment by suggesting primary small bowel disease. Barium enema examination of the colon will keep the wary physician out of such traps.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Asymptomatic diverticulosis requires no treatment. When symptoms develop, treatment varies depending on clinical manifestations.[merckmanuals.com]

Prognosis

  • The course and prognosis of ulcerative colitis. Part IV. Carcinoma of the colon. Gut 1964;5:15–22. Google Scholar 12. Broomé U, Lindberg G, Löfberg R.[link.springer.com]
  • A cancer's stage will determine the treatment options and inform the prognosis, or the likely course the cancer will take.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis Total colectomy is curative of both the intestinal symptoms and of the potential risk of colorectal carcinoma.[radiopaedia.org]
  • The prognosis for acute severe colitis depends on their initial response to corticosteroid treatment.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • […] significantly more frequent in the cirrhotic patients (92%) than in the control group (64%); however, such lesions did not seem specific to the disease and were not statistically correlated with the degree of esophageal varices by Child's grading, the etiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Previous studies investigating the etiology of pCD have been limited in the numbers of subjects and the intensity of genotyping. The aim of this study was to identify clinical, serological, and genetic factors associated with pCD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of colonic diverticulosis is multifactorial and not entirely known.[merckmanuals.com]

Epidemiology

  • Factors affecting colectomy rate in ulcerative colitis: an epidemiological study. Gut 1990;31:329–33. PubMed Google Scholar 19. Schroeder KW, Tremaine WJ, Ilstrup DM.[link.springer.com]
  • Transmural granulomatous disease affecting GI tract from esophagus to anus but discontinuous ( Wikipedia, eMedicine #1, #2 ) Terminology Also called regional enteritis because it affects sharply delineated segments, or granulomatous colitis due to granulomas Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Epidemiology [ 1 ] Ulcerative colitis is the most common type of inflammatory disease of the bowel. It has an incidence in the UK of approximately 10 per 100,000 people annually and a prevalence of approximately 240 per 100,000.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology and theoretic considerations are mentioned where applicable and current therapy is discussed. The conditions are classified under infectious, neoplastic, iatrogenic, and congenital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review portrays the immense potential of CCB as a powerful tool for investigating the pathophysiology of disease, identifying genetic variants in pharmacogenetics, assessment of mucosal immunity, and several other applications that use somatic cells[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus, our data indicate differences in IEL populations between CD, UC, and controls, which support the pathophysiologic differences between CD and UC. The different phenotypes suggest a role for these cells in the diagnosis of IBD.[jimmunol.org]
  • The pathophysiology of diverticular bleeding is unknown, but several mechanisms are hypothesized, including Local trauma from impacted feces in a diverticulum that can erode the adjacent vessel Enlargement of the diverticulum that can stretch (and ultimately[merckmanuals.com]

Prevention

  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colonic mucins secreted by goblet cells protect the colon by preventing the attachment of enteric pathogens to the epithelium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Maintaining a healthy diet can help prevent the development of colonic polyps. This includes eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meat. You may also be able to prevent polyps by increasing your intake of vitamin D and calcium.[healthline.com]
  • For this reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they turn into cancer.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Colon cancer is preventable with proper screening because polyps usually take a long time to grow and become cancerous. Following guidelines about when and how to be screened are the best way to find colon cancer early or even to prevent it.[verywell.com]
  • Other Important Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Though colon cancer is very preventable, there are still a number of important risk factors that people can’t control.[siteman.wustl.edu]

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