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Common Cold

Common cold refers to any specific viral or group of viral diseases that affect the parts of the upper respiratory tract like the sinuses (sinusitis) and the pharynx (pharyngitis). It sometimes affects the eyes causing conjunctivitis [1].


Presentation

The typical symptoms are cough, which is milder most of the times. They may also have a runny nose, nasal congestion sore throat, and the color of the nasal secretion may vary form clear to green thick secretion. There might also be fatigue, feeling of mild depression, headache, loss of appetite and muscle ache. Fever is a common presenting symptom in infants but not generally present in adults. If fever is seen in an adult, influenza should be considered [7].

Some patients may present with complications like otitis media, chronic bronchitis, otitis media. Aggravation of reactive airways in susceptible patients.

Cough
  • Our knowledge of cough physiology is limited despite years of study. Even less is known about the sensation of urge to cough.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two previous studies incorporating capsaicin cough challenge methodology have demonstrated that cough reflex sensitivity is transiently enhanced during URI. These studies used single measurements of cough reflex sensitivity during the URI period.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute upper respiratory infection is the most common childhood illness and presents with cough, coryza and fever. Available evidence suggests that cough medicines may be no more effective than honey-based cough remedies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Differences of opinion exist as to whether optimal therapy for cough associated with the common cold consists of multi-component, multi-symptom cough/cold preparations, or, whether single-component medications, aimed at relief of specific symptoms, represent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sneezing
  • A single sneeze can spray 100,000 germs into the air ... which is why you should keep a six-foot distance from a sneezing sick person. 10.[treehugger.com]
  • Practice good cough and sneeze etiquette: always cough and sneeze into a tissue or your upper shirt sleeve, completely covering your mouth and nose.[cdc.gov]
  • […] on a four- or five-point severity scale; sneezing on day three: MD -0.35, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.20 on a four-point severity scale), but this effect is clinically non-significant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, coughing. These are the hallmarks of the common cold—and unfortunately, it hits millions of people in the United States each year.[vicks.com]
  • Nux vomica This relieves spasmodic sneezing in the morning, with a dry nose during the night.[uofmhealth.org]
Sore Throat
  • You’ll know you have a cold if you’re suffering from a sore throat, runny nose, coughing, sneezing, watery eyes, headaches and body aches. Usually a sore throat is the first symptom to show up, followed by a runny nose.[vicks.com]
  • Dissolve some salt in a glass of water and gargle to relieve a sore throat. Sucking on ice can help relieve the pain of a sore throat. Adults and children older than 6 years may also want to try sore throat lozenges or sprays .[mydr.com.au]
  • Acetaminophen did not improve sore throat or malaise in two of the four studies. Results were inconsistent for some symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nasal Congestion
  • To determine the effect of IB versus placebo or no treatment on severity of rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion in children and adults with the common cold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common cold symptoms include sore or scratchy throat, nasal congestion or stuffiness, a runny nose, and a cough. You may also experience sneezing, low-grade fever, or fatigue.[everydayhealth.com]
  • The symptoms of a cold are sneezing, a runny nose, sore throat and nasal congestion. Young children can also run a high temperature.[independent.co.uk]
  • Sulphur iodatum This remedy relieves lingering symptoms (cough, nasal congestion) after a severe cold or flu.[uofmhealth.org]
Nasal Discharge
  • Hydrastis canadensis This remedy relieves thick nasal discharge that irritates the throat. Kali bichromicum This helps relieve thick, greenish, irritating nasal discharge.[uofmhealth.org]
  • Zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of nasal discharge by 34% (95% CI: 17% to 51%), nasal congestion by 37% (15% to 58%), sneezing by 22% (-1% to 45%), scratchy throat by 33% (8% to 59%), sore throat by 18% (-10% to 46%), hoarseness by 43% (3%[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The symptoms of the common cold usually include nasal obstruction, headache, sore throat, sneezing, cough, malaise and nasal discharge. There is no effective therapy for the common cold and most medications are symptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms of colds and flu include: Symptoms of Colds and Flu Symptom: Fever Cold : Adults - rare; Children - sometimes Flu : High fever (100 F and higher; can last 3 to 4 days) Symptom: Runny nose Cold: Common (Nasal discharge may have a yellow- or green-colored[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Symptoms Cold symptoms usually appear 1-3 days after exposure to the virus and include: nasal congestion (blocked nose); nasal discharge (runny nose); sneezing; sore throat ; coughing; mild fever ; headache; and red, watery eyes.[mydr.com.au]
Fever
  • You should keep your child at home if they have a fever or are coughing a lot.[albertahealthservices.ca]
  • When to see a doctor For adults — seek medical attention if you have: Fever greater than 101.3 F (38.5 C) Fever lasting five days or more or returning after a fever-free period Shortness of breath Wheezing Severe sore throat, headache or sinus pain For[mayoclinic.org]
  • If you experience any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor: high fever (38 C) for over 3 to 5 days (or if fever recurs following a period of normal temperature) fever combined with violent or continuous coughing intense pain while breathing[yths.fi]
  • Having aches, pains, or a fever means you probably have a cold, not allergies. A. True B. False The correct answer is true. Allergies don't cause achiness or fever. Adults and older children with colds most often have a low fever or no fever.[ufhealth.org]
  • Secondary outcomes include the duration of primary symptoms and each symptom, time to fever relief and time to fever clearance, change in TCM symptom score, and change in Symptom and Sign Score.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chills
  • Dulcamara When a person comes down with a cold after getting wet and chilled, or if colds come on when the weather changes, this remedy should come to mind. A stopped-up nose and face pain are likely.[uofmhealth.org]
  • Other symptoms that may occur later include headache, stuffy nose, watering eyes, hacking cough, chills, muscle aches, and general malaise (ill-feeling) lasting from 2 to 7 days. Some cases may last for two weeks.[ccohs.ca]
  • The set of symptoms normally includes things like a runny nose, sneezing, coughing, "chills" and a headache. It does not include a fever -- normally, if there is a fever it's called "the flu."[health.howstuffworks.com]
  • In general, flu symptoms are worse than the common cold and can include fever or feeling feverish/chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches and fatigue (tiredness).[cdc.gov]
  • Common Symptom: Body aches Cold: Sometimes (usually mild) Flu: Common (can be severe) Symptom: Fatigue Cold: Sometimes (usually mild) Flu: Common (can last up to 2-3 weeks) Symptom: Exhaustion Cold: Never Flu: Common (at the start of the flu) Symptom: Chills[my.clevelandclinic.org]
Fatigue
  • Flu Symptoms · High Fever · Infrequent Sore Throat · Occasional Sneezing if any · Clear nose · Severe Aches and Pains/Muscle Soreness · Constant Headaches · Several Weeks of Fatigue · Severe Cough · Extreme Exhaustion Common Cold According to the National[pharmacytimes.com]
  • This increases the risk of being affected by tiredness during the working day, and of becoming fatigued during the course of a cold.[skybrary.aero]
  • You may also experience sneezing, low-grade fever, or fatigue. The full life cycle of a cold is usually between seven and 10 days. According to Dr.[everydayhealth.com]
  • Scores of symptoms typically responsive to ibuprofen (headache, pharyngeal pain, joint pain and fever), typically responsive to pseudoephedrine (congested nose, congested sinus and runny nose), considered non-specific (sneezing, fatigue, dry cough, cough[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On the other hand, patients with influenza may first begin to complain about headaches, severe fatigue and weakness and a high temperature (fever). Is the common cold contagious? Yes.[irishhealth.com]
Weakness
  • People who need this remedy often feel weak, "spaced out," and anxious or fearful when ill.[uofmhealth.org]
  • On the other hand, patients with influenza may first begin to complain about headaches, severe fatigue and weakness and a high temperature (fever). Is the common cold contagious? Yes.[irishhealth.com]
  • Echinacea products have not here been shown to provide benefits for treating colds, although, it is possible there is a weak benefit from some Echinacea products: the results of individual prophylaxis trials consistently show positive (if non-significant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A severe cold can make you feel weak and ill too. Most colds are caused by viruses . Antibiotics are not effective against colds because they only fight bacteria . But there are other things you can do about colds and the related symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patient may also have headache, weakness, muscle pain, loss of appetite and a general feeling of unwell. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually clinical, and made by the doctor.[symptoma.com]
Malaise
  • Acetaminophen did not improve sore throat or malaise in two of the four studies. Results were inconsistent for some symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The symptoms of the common cold usually include nasal obstruction, headache, sore throat, sneezing, cough, malaise and nasal discharge. There is no effective therapy for the common cold and most medications are symptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually 37.8º C).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat and fever (usually 37.8 C).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Loss of Appetite
  • Patient may also have headache, weakness, muscle pain, loss of appetite and a general feeling of unwell. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually clinical, and made by the doctor.[symptoma.com]
  • […] of appetite Cold: Sometimes Flu: Common Symptom: Sneezing Cold: Common Flu: Sometimes Symptom: Cough Cold: Common Flu: Sometimes Symptom: Sore throat Cold: Common Flu: Sometimes Symptom: Chest congestion, discomfort Cold: Common (mild to moderate) Flu[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, feeling unwell, feeling chilled, with headache, muscle aches, and pains. Many signs and symptoms are caused by congestion from swelling of membranes and thickened mucus inside the nose.[cochrane.org]
  • In addition, take your baby or child to the doctor if they have: a bulging fontanelle (the soft spot on top of the baby's head); excessive irritability; high pitched cry; loss of appetite; or earache.[mydr.com.au]
  • Symptoms may include: Scratchy or sore throat Sneezing, runny or stuffy nose Cough Watery eyes Ear congestion Slight fever (37.2 to 37.8 C) Tiredness Headache Loss of appetite Thicker and yellow discharge from your nose is common with colds.[wrha.mb.ca]
Myalgia
  • We extracted and summarised data on global analgesic effects (such as reduction of headache and myalgia), non-analgesic effects (such as reduction of nasal symptoms, cough, sputum and sneezing) and side effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We extracted and summarised data on global efficacies of analgesic effects (such as reduction of headache and myalgia), non-analgesic effects (such as reduction of nasal symptoms, cough, sputum and sneezing) and side effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Increased Sweating
  • Minor side effects (including gastrointestinal adverse events, dizziness, dry mouth, somnolence and increased sweating) in the acetaminophen group were reported in two of the four studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Elder ( Sambucus ) has antiviral activity, increases sweating, decreases inflammation, and decreases nasal discharge. The usual dose is 500 mg of extract thrice daily.[encyclopedia.com]
Headache
  • A headache that becomes more severe over a 24 hour period should be assessed by a doctor.[livestrong.com]
  • For outcomes related to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs (headache, ear pain, and muscle and joint pain) the treatment produced significant benefits.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Signs and symptoms, which can vary from person to person, might include: Runny or stuffy nose Sore throat Cough Congestion Slight body aches or a mild headache Sneezing Low-grade fever Generally feeling unwell (malaise) The discharge from your nose may[mayoclinic.org]
  • Patients suffering from both the common cold and a bout of influenza will generally feel unwell and below par but persistent, and sometimes severe, headaches may be present with influenza. Slight headaches are normally present with the common cold.[irishhealth.com]

Workup

Diagnosis of common cold can generally made on the basis of a thorough history and the typical physical findings. If the history and physical examination point to a viral cause, a serious work up is unnecessary.

The white blood cell count might be elevated within the first 3 days although this has little clinical relevance or diagnostic value. Complete blood count and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate also have no benefit. Viral cultures have little or no significant clinical value because of the prolonged time it takes to obtain the result.

Isolation of the particular strain of virus is difficult and even if it is possible, has no bearing on the clinical course or outcome.

If the specific viral diagnosis is however required, culture can be obtained from nasal secretions. Real-time microarray and Polymerase chain reaction could also be used.

If there is suspicion of a secondary infection, then a bacteria culture should be done. A chest x-ray should also be done if involvement of the lower respiratory tract is suspected.

Treatment

There is no known cure for common cold, as such, treatment centers on providing symptomatic relief and supportive care [8].

Supportive care include; nursing at a 45 degree angle, plenty of rest, proper hydration, disinfecting the environment, use of decongestants, cessation of smoking and alcohol, eating hot soups, and use of nasal saline drops.

Medication that may be used include analgesics for pain, decongestants to relieve the airways and antihistamines to mediate the inflammatory reaction [9].

Antibiotics may be used if a bacterial superinfection is suspected.

Prognosis

The common cold is a self-limiting disease and the attacks are generally mild. The patients begin to show signs of improvement within a week. Half of infected individuals attain full recovery within 10 days while by day 15, over 90% of cases would have been resolved. Complications, though rare, may occur in young children, the elderly, the malnourished and the immunosuppressed. Secondary bacterial infection may complicate up to 30% of cases [6].

Etiology

It is caused by a number of viruses. The most implicated virus is a type of picovirus called rhinovirus. Others viruses are influenza virus, human coronavirus, adenovirus, human respiratory syncytial virus, enterovirus, parainfluenza virus and a host of many other viruses. Usually, one or more virus may be responsible for a particular attack.

It is a communicable disease and is transmitted via aerosols, direct contact with secretions from sick people and from contaminated object [2].

Aggravating factor for this condition includes cold weather. Most of the viruses causing common cold thrive during the cold seasons for yet undetermined reasons. This has led to a belief that it can be caught from prolonged exposure to cold weather. There are number of hypothesis to explain increased susceptibility to cold viruses during the cold seasons. Other risk factors are poor immunity, malnutrition and sleep deprivation.

Epidemiology

The common cold is the most common disease affecting the human race. It affects people of all ages, all races and both sexes. It affects children more than adults, affecting children as many as 12 times a year compared to 5 times in adults. Low income earners and the underdeveloped population are at increased risk of developing complications from common cold [3].

Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

The mechanism of the response of the immune system is specific for the causative virus. Rhinoviruses which are characteristically acquired by direct contact, bind to some receptors in humans via unknown mechanisms and trigger the release of inflammatory mediators. These inflammatory mediators are responsible for the symptoms seen in common cold. Rhinoviruses typically do not damage the nasal epithelium [4].

Respiratory syncytial virus is acquired through droplet infection and direct contact. It first replicates in the nose and then the throat, as it continues its spread to the lower respiratory tract. This virus will damage the epithelium [5]. The symptoms seen in common cold are primarily due to the immune response to the viral invasion.

Prevention

Due to the mode of spread, preventive measures include regular handwashing, avoiding putting the finger in the nose and eye, use of hand-sanitizers and the use of facemasks when the person is around infected people [10].

Summary

Common cold is caused by virus and it is infectious and communicable. It is also a fairly common disease and can affect a person more than once a year. Like most viral disease, it has no cure and is self-limiting, running its course within a week.

Patient Information

Definition: Common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract like nose and throat. It is a very common disease and it affects people of all ages. It is self-limiting.

Cause: It is caused by one of several viruses including rhinovirus and parainfluenza virus. Some of these viruses thrive in the colder seasons. It can be spread by inhaling aerosols from infected persons, touching infected secretion or contaminated surfaces and then touching the eye or nose.

Symptoms: These include, cough, runny nose, congested nostrils, and sore throat. Patient may also have headache, weakness, muscle pain, loss of appetite and a general feeling of unwell.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually clinical, and made by the doctor. Laboratory tests offer no significant clinical value and are only ordered on very rare occasions.

Treatment: This is usually supportive and it is aimed at relieving the nasal congestions, reducing the pain and managing the inflammation. This can be done by a number of drug and non-drug regimen.

References

Article

  1. Puhakka T, Mäkelä MJ, Alanen A, et al. Sinusitis in the common cold. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 102:403.
  2. Gwaltney JM Jr, Moskalski PB, Hendley JO. Hand-to-hand transmission of rhinovirus colds. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88:463.
  3. Heikkinen T, Järvinen A. The common cold. Lancet 2003; 361:51.
  4. Turner RB. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the common cold. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 78:531.
  5. Hall CB, Douglas RG Jr. Modes of transmission of respiratory syncytial virus. J Pediatr. Jul 1981;99(1):100-3.
  6. Thompson M, Vodicka TA, Blair PS, et al. Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: systematic review. BMJ 2013; 347:f7027.
  7. Tyrrell DA, Cohen S, Schlarb JE. Signs and symptoms in common colds. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 111:143.
  8. Simasek M, Blandino DA. Treatment of the common cold. Am Fam Physician 2007; 75:515.
  9. Luks D, Anderson MR. Antihistamines and the common cold. A review and critique of the literature. J Gen Intern Med 1996; 11:240.
  10. Jefferson T, Del Mar C, Dooley L, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; :CD006207.

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