Condyloma acuminatum (genital wart, venereal wars) is a sexually transmitted papilloma of viral origin, usually occurring on the external genitals or in the perianal region.
The signs and symptoms of condyloma acuminata include the following features:
Entire Body System
Gissman L, Schneider A: Human papillomavirus DNA in preneoplastic and neoplastic genital lesions. In R Peto, H zur Hansen (Eds): Banbury Report 21. New York: Cold Spring Harbor, 1986, pp. 217–224. Google Scholar 4. [link.springer.com]
The complications of Condyloma Acuminata of Vulva include: Recurrence of the infection after treatment Scarring of the genitalia During pregnancy, these genital lesions can become active (may become big), may cause bleeding, or interfere with childbirth [dovemed.com]
Danya Reich, Corinna Eleni Psomadakis and Bobby Buka, Genital Lesions: Molluscum Contagiosum and Warts, Top 50 Dermatology Case Studies for Primary Care, 10.1007/978-3-319-18627-6_32, (199-209), (2016). [doi.org]
Pigment incontinence is present focally. See also Vulva. Penis. References Nucci, Marisa R.; Oliva, Esther (2009). Gynecologic Pathology: A Volume in Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology Series (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 143. [librepathology.org]
Diagnosis of condyloma acuminata begins with a past medical history of the disease and sexual life of the affected individuals. Following this, the following diagnostic procedures are carried out:
- Tests for sexually transmitted diseases.
- Pap smear test to detect acanthosis, nuclear abnormality, koilocytic abnormality and papillomatosis.
- Filter hybridization is also required for analyzing the genotype of HPV involved.
- Biopsy of the warts is required to confirm the diagnosis if the warts harden and appear to be darker than the skin color.
It is difficult to cure condyloma acuminatum. The treatment regimes are geared towards effective resolution of the warts and prevent the spread of the viral infection to rest of the body. The following are the various methods employed for treating condyloma acuminatum:
- Application of imiquimod cream  and podofilox gel to the affected area daily for a period of 8 weeks. These work by boosting the immune system to ward off the virus from the body. The medicated creams should be avoided by pregnant women and couples should not wear the cream during sexual activity .
- Cyrotherapy is often the treatment of choice when the warts have enlarged and do not respond to medications. It is the method of freezing warts by use of liquid nitrogen .
- Surgery is required when there are multiple warts causing great discomfort to the patient .
- Laser treatment is employed when there are several warts in the urethra or vaginal region. This carbon dioxide photodynamic option reserves the least recurrence rate for condyloma acuminatum .
- Ultrasound guided harmonic scalpel may be used to remove anorectal lesions .
Several treatment cycles would be required for resolving the warts. However, if the warts do not respond to 6 consecutive treatment cycles then the patients are usually given other treatment regime.
Condyloma acuminatum cannot be cured. However, with appropriate treatment the conditions can be managed in about 60 to 90% of cases. Warts may reappear after specific periods, but cannot turn cancerous in nature if managed well with treatment. Failure to initiate appropriate treatment regime can pave way for secondary complications.
Individuals suffering from condyloma acuminate when fail to receive medical attention are at risk of developing anogenital cancer . Patients pose a potential risk of suffering from esophageal, lung and bladder cancer. Also, there are high chances of developing cancer of the vagina, vulva, anus and penis .
Infections by HPV are the major causative factor. Two genotypes 6 and 11 are known to trigger majority of the cases of condyloma acuminatum. In addition, genotypes 16 and 18 are also considered to be high risk because these are known to cause cervical and anal cancer. These genotypes however have minimal association with genital warts. The factors that increase the risk of contracting HPV include:
In the United States, the prevalence of condyloma acuminatum has been reported to be more than 50%. Teenagers and young adults are more susceptible to develop genital warts; with the rate of incidence been highest for individuals aged 20 to 24 years. It has also been estimated that women are more prone to contract genital warts than males.
The human papillomavirus causes condyloma acuminatum. The virus enters the human system by invading the basal cells of the epidermis. After gaining entry the virus causes development of mucosal microabrasions. Individuals can live with no signs and symptoms for several weeks to months. After the latent phase, the formation of warts takes place. The most commonly affected regions include the vagina, cervix, penis, perianal area, vulva and perineum.
Condyloma acuminatum can be prevented by practicing safe sex or abstaining from sexual activity. It is also advised that men or women have only one sexual partner and that they refrain from having sex with multiple partners. HPV cannot be prevented by using condoms during sexual intercourse.
Condyloma acuminatum, commonly referred to as genital warts is one of the most common forms of sexually transmitted diseases. It is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) affecting millions of individuals across the globe. There are over 100 strains of HPV and subtypes 6 and 11 are known to trigger majority of the cases of condyloma acuminatum. Individuals who are sexually active with multiple partners fall easy prey to HPV infections.
Condyloma acuminatum is a disease characterized by development of warts in the genital region. It is one of the most common types of sexually transmitted diseases and should receive prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid onset of cancer. It is caused due to human papillomavirus (HPV) that has more than 100 strains. Of these, 2 genotypes 6 and 11 are known to cause the majority of genital warts. It has been estimated that about 75 – 80% of sexually active men and women can fall prey to condyloma acuminatum.
Infection by HPV is the major cause of condyloma acuminatum. The infections spread by skin to skin contact with an infected person. Factors such as having multiple partners and smoking also increase the risk of contracting genital warts.
Visual examination of the warts followed by biopsy would help in achieving an appropriate diagnosis. In addition, laboratory tests to identify the strain of HPV involved and Pap smear test would also be carried out.
Condyloma acuminatum cannot be cured. The warts can be resolved and the spread of infection avoided with proper and rigorous treatment regime. Application of topical agents on the warts along with various therapies forms the basis of treatment regime. In addition, in case of multiple warts surgical procedures may be required. Also, cryotherapy can be conducted for freezing the warts.
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