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Confusion

Confused


Presentation

  • CONCLUSIONS: We report 2 patients evaluated within 1 month of each other who presented with acute confusion and were eventually diagnosed with Susac syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe the case of a gentleman who presented with delirium, reduced mobility and hyponatraemia who was subsequently found to have pituitary failure secondary to pituitary apoplexy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinicians should consider a DCCF in the differential diagnosis of this clinical presentation, with corroborative imaging findings. Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of a 90-year-old woman who presented to the acute medical unit with a new onset presentation of confusion. Her abbreviated mental test on admission was 5/10.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Streptococcal Infection
  • Infections Toxic shock syndrome Transient ischemic attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) Acute Porphyria West Nile virus The most common causes of drug induced acute confusion are dopaminergic drugs (used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease), diuretics, tricyclic[en.wikipedia.org]
Abdominal Distension
  • They presented with severe confusion and abdominal distension. Emphysematous cystitis was diagnosed in time with a thorough physical examination, urine analysis and computed tomography.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Jaw Pain
  • He reported abdominal pain, facial and jaw pain, anorexia, lethargy, weakness, and night sweats; imaging revealed generalized lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Night Sweats
  • He reported abdominal pain, facial and jaw pain, anorexia, lethargy, weakness, and night sweats; imaging revealed generalized lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Suicidal Ideation
  • Parameter estimates indicated that greater experience of economic hardship increased with financial threat, which in turn increased with levels of suicide ideation and confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Agitation
  • A 7-point scale (0-7) was derived from responses to the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale items.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In rare cases, new medications may have an unintended and unexpected side effect of agitation or sleeplessness. Low Oxygen Levels: If the patient is not getting enough oxygen, agitation and confusion can be one of the first signs.[verywell.com]
  • Within 30 min of ingestion, he became somnolent, confused, and agitated, with palpitation and vomiting. On arrival to the emergency department, a short run of supraventricular tachycardia was noted, which resolved spontaneously.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Agitation, delusions, behavioural disorders and hallucinations (often visual) may complicate the picture.[medicalguidelines.msf.org]
  • The main signs of delirium are sudden changes in consciousness or state of arousal, such as feeling drowsy or agitated.[cancer.net]
Irritability
  • Signs And Symptoms All types of mental confusion share similar signs and symptoms, including: Depression Delusions Hallucinations Restlessness, anxiety, irritability Disturbed sleeps Clouded consciousness or awareness Decreased or no attention span Loss[symptomfind.com]
  • Very serious cases of bleeding in someone who maybe is taking a lot of ibuprofen for some pain and it causes some stomach irritation and bleeding. So those are the primary things I'm looking at, and then I might look at their oxygen level as well.[healthcare.utah.edu]
  • […] attention span Memory problems Disorganized thinking and speech Disorientation A reversal of day and night Difficulty writing, drawing, or finding words Personality changes Depression Delusions or hallucinations Restlessness, anxiety, sleep disturbance, or irritability[cancer.net]
Expressive Aphasia
  • KEYWORDS: Cortical venous reflux; Dural carotid cavernous fistula; Expressive aphasia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • An initial diagnosis of delirium secondary to a urinary tract infection was suspected; however, the patient became increasingly confused despite treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is usually the more difficult type of delirium, as the hyperactive patient can interfere with treatment procedures. This can also be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.[symptomfind.com]
  • It can also interfere with a patient’s ability to receive cancer treatments.[cancer.net]
  • Although not as common a diagnosis as migraine, sinus headache and the associated treatments can be found extensively in references on the Internet. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] availability of small-particle aerosols of corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or their combination enables a higher total lung deposition and better peripheral lung penetration and provides added clinical benefit, compared with large-particle aerosol treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Patients with malignancy or HIV also have a worse prognosis. [ 4 ] Prevention [ 1 ] Awareness of high-risk patients and subsequent close observation for delirium with prompt assessment and management can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Abstract Background The umbrella term "Internet addiction" has been criticized for its lack of specificity given the heterogeneity of potentially problematic behaviors that can be engaged in online as well as different underlying etiological mechanisms[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Etiologies of confusion are discussed, including vascular, infectious, toxic-metabolic, tumorous, convulsive, and vitaminologic. Other diverse conditions are reviewed, including normal-pressure hydrocephalus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ICD-10 definition of delirium not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances [ 11 ] An etiologically nonspecific organic cerebral syndrome characterized by concurrent disturbances of consciousness and attention, perception, thinking, memory,[patient.info]

Epidemiology

  • Institute , Weill Cornell Medicine, TBI/DOC Research Program, Blythedale Children's Hospital, New York, New York. 2 2 SUNY Downstate Medical Center , Brooklyn, New York. 3 3 Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Delirium occurs in 30% of those in emergency departments. [ 3 ] Occurence rates vary from 11-42% and it is the most common complication of hospitalisation in the elderly population. [ 2 ] The incidence is also higher in those with pre-existing[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of asthma and COPD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract While the duration and severity of post-traumatic confusional state (PTCS) after traumatic brain injury have well-established implications for long-term outcomes, little is known about the underlying pathophysiology and their role in functional[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has thus recommended a 'tailored multicomponent intervention package' which consists of the following: [ 1 ] Multidisciplinary team approach to the prevention of delirium.[patient.info]
  • “Recognition of different patterns of toxicity could lead to a quicker diagnosis and hopefully prevent of some of the negative consequences for people with delirium and other brain problems.”[psychcentral.com]
  • "Recognition of different patterns of toxicity could lead to a quicker diagnosis and hopefully prevent of some of the negative consequences for people with delirium and other brain problems."[sciencedaily.com]
  • Can I Prevent Sudden Confusion? It depends on the cause. Your doctor can tell you what you need to do.[webmd.com]
  • Version history [ edit ] Patch Changes March 05, 2019 No longer deals damage when a skill is prevented from activating due to an invalid position of the target relative to the caster.[wiki.guildwars2.com]

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