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Congenital Communicating Hydrocephalus

Congenital Hydrocephalus


Presentation

  • Each entry follows a 5 section structure that will cover (1) essential features of the disorder (2) physiological basis of the disorder (3) neuropsychological and other clinical presentation (4) assessment and diagnostic practices (5) evidence-based treatments[books.google.com]
  • .: 91 993 5340260; Fax: 91 542 2367568; E-mail: drsriparnabasu@rediffmail.com Abstract: We report a preterm, small-for-gestational age, very low birth weight male neonate presenting at birth with generalized reddish blue papulonodular lesions (including[content.iospress.com]
  • Email: jogendrayadv@gmail,com Clinical Problem : A two-month-old boy presented with irritability, recurrent episodes of projectile vomiting for 3 days and rapidly increasing head size for 15 days. There was no fever.[pediatriconcall.com]
  • Children present with headache, vomiting, lethargy, irritability, esotropia, or paralysis of upward gaze. Seizures may occur.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Congenital hydrocephalus – When hydrocephalus is caused by congenital birth defects the symptoms normally present themselves in childhood. However, they may not appear until adulthood in some cases.[headwayabiaustralia.org]
High-Pitched Cry
  • Symptoms and Signs Neurologic findings depend on whether intracranial pressure is increased, symptoms of which in infants include irritability, high-pitched cry, vomiting, lethargy, strabismus, and bulging fontanelle.[msdmanuals.com]
Precocious Puberty
  • Consequences of chronic hydrocephalus may include precocious puberty in girls, learning disorders (eg, difficulties with attention, information processing, and memory), loss of vision, and impaired executive function (eg, problems with conceptualizing[msdmanuals.com]
Atrial Septal Defect
Projectile Vomiting
  • Email: jogendrayadv@gmail,com Clinical Problem : A two-month-old boy presented with irritability, recurrent episodes of projectile vomiting for 3 days and rapidly increasing head size for 15 days. There was no fever.[pediatriconcall.com]
Hepatosplenomegaly
  • […] drsriparnabasu@rediffmail.com Abstract: We report a preterm, small-for-gestational age, very low birth weight male neonate presenting at birth with generalized reddish blue papulonodular lesions (including palms and soles), anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly[content.iospress.com]
Esotropia
  • Children present with headache, vomiting, lethargy, irritability, esotropia, or paralysis of upward gaze. Seizures may occur.[msdmanuals.com]
Hydrops Fetalis
  • Stay at the forefront of your field thanks to new and completely revised chapters covering topics such as: Principles and Practice l Immune and Non-immune Hydrops Fetalis l Amniotic Fluid Volume l Enhancing Safe Prescribing in the Neonatal Intensive Care[books.google.com]
Clumsiness
  • In six patients who received this grave neuroradiologic diagnosis, five subsequently developed normally and the sixth has static incoordination or clumsiness and mild intellectual deficiency.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Later, there is usually an inability to withstand urine that progresses to incontinence and memory failures, clumsiness or increasingly frequent deficits that progress to dementia if hydrocephalus is not treated.[topdoctors.es]
Slurred Speech
  • After early childhood, there may be other symptoms to watch for, such as headaches, vision problems, confusion, slurred speech, or problems walking. Shunt infections may also cause a fever and redness along the shunt tract or valve.[myhealth.alberta.ca]
Bulging Fontanelle
  • If the disorder occurs before the cranial sutures have fused, the head may be enlarged, with bulging fontanelles.[msdmanuals.com]

Workup

Treponema Pallidum
  • When congenital infection is suspected, it is important to consider obtaining blood serologic studies for Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella Virus, Treponema pallidum, Herpes Virus, and Cytomegalovirus.[neurosurgerydallas.com]
Toxoplasma Gondii
  • When congenital infection is suspected, it is important to consider obtaining blood serologic studies for Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella Virus, Treponema pallidum, Herpes Virus, and Cytomegalovirus.[neurosurgerydallas.com]

Treatment

  • […] disorders across the lifespan (pediatric, adult, and geriatric populations) Includes interventions and methods of treatment for the outcomes patients may experience[books.google.com]
  • Early treatment—before age 4 months—is important to help limit or prevent brain damage. Treatment focuses on reducing the amount of fluid in the brain to relieve pressure.[myhealth.alberta.ca]
  • Make informed clinical choices for each patient, from diagnosis and treatment selection through post-treatment strategies and management of complications, with new evidence-based criteria throughout.[books.google.com]
  • This section explains the causes and symptoms of hydrocephalus as well as outlining the long-term effects and treatment options available.[headwayabiaustralia.org]
  • However, recent treatment includes endoscopic ventriculostomy.[pediatriconcall.com]

Prognosis

  • On the other hand, those with mild isolated ventriculomegaly of less than 12 mm have an excellent prognosis.[chop.edu]
  • Treatment and prognosis Unlike many cases of obstructive noncommunicating hydrocephalus, where an endoscopic third ventriculostomy can bypass the site of obstruction, in communicating hydrocephalus patients usually require CSF shunting, most commonly[radiopaedia.org]
  • (other causes of dementia). they are not treatable or they are not of good prognosis).[topdoctors.es]
  • Beyond that, predicting a specific child’s prognosis depends on such variables as early detection of the condition, if any other disorders are present, and how well the child responds to the treatment.[birthinjuryguide.org]
  • Future prognosis and good health will be largely determined by avoiding complications and detecting shunt malfunction early The term hydrocephalus relates to an imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid that may cause an increase[bmj.com]

Etiology

  • A total of 205 patients with documented hydrocephalus were identified in whom a specific non-genetic etiology could not be established.[scholars.northwestern.edu]
  • Treat with observation or serial lumbar punctures or a ventricular shunt procedure depending on the etiology and severity and progression of symptoms. Click here for Patient Education[msdmanuals.com]
  • Etiology subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) meningitis normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) leptomeningeal infiltration by tumor leptomeningeal carcinomatosis disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor of childhood (case 4) as a post-operative[radiopaedia.org]
  • Etiology, Diagnosis, and Presentation Hydrocephalus in the pediatric population is characterized by an initial increase in intraventricular pressure, resulting in pathologic dilation of the cerebral ventricles with an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Genetic Etiology X-linked hydrocephalus (L1 syndrome) and its variants First described in 1949, linked to X chromosome in 1961: An X-linked syndrome characterized by congenital hydrocephalus, stenosis of the aqueduct, adducted thumbs, and spastic paraparesis[ispn.guide]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology There is some evidence that the incidence of paediatric hydrocephalus has declined in many developed countries.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Nervenarzt 66:397–402 PubMed Google Scholar Levine DN, Rapalino O (2001) The pathophysiology of lumbar puncture headache.[link.springer.com]
  • Objectives After completing this article, readers should be able to: Understand basic pathophysiology related to hydrocephalus and available treatments. Recognize presenting signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • According to Bateman, venous hypertension should be considered as the most crucial factor in the pathophysiology of LIAS.[ispn.guide]
  • Definition Abnormal enlargement of cerebral ventricles and/or subarachnoid space as a result of excess cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF ) accumulation Types of hydrocephalus Type of hydrocephalus Etiology Pathophysiology Symptoms/Clinical findings Diagnosis[amboss.com]
  • Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008:1744. 3. Kandasamy J, Jenkinson MD, Mallucci CL. Contemporary management and recent advances in paediatric hydrocephalus. BMJ. 2011;343:146-151. 4.[uspharmacist.com]

Prevention

  • Early treatment—before age 4 months—is important to help limit or prevent brain damage. Treatment focuses on reducing the amount of fluid in the brain to relieve pressure.[myhealth.alberta.ca]
  • Shunts and third ventriculostomies relieve the pressure inside the skull and prevent more neurological damage.[birthinjuryguide.org]
  • Hospital for Sick Children Health A-Z Search a complete list of child health articles expand_more View All Drug A-Z Search a list of articles about medications expand_more View All Learning Hubs Browse a complete list of content groups Healthy Living & Prevention[aboutkidshealth.ca]
  • Prevention A few of the causes of hydrocephalus can be prevented: To help avoid severe head injury, wear appropriate protective gear when participating in contact sports or other activities, such as skiing, riding a bike and sledding, with a risk of head[drugs.com]
  • And if it’s early enough, prevent them. Whether it’s through the most-advanced technology, like brain imaging, or the most-foundational health habits, like rest and exercise, no matter your age, stage, or issue, there’s always hope here.[floridahospital.com]

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