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Congenital Mitral Stenosis

Mitral Atresia


Presentation

  • We report here the first and a rarest presentation of the AMVT in a 19-year old female patient diagnosed to have double outlet right ventricle, ventricular septal defect (VSD), infundibular stenosis and congenital mitral stenosis (MS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a case of a 14-month-old-infant with severe congenital mitral stenosis who presented with pulmonary oedema, acute renal failure and haemodynamic instability.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pulmonary vasoreactivity was greater than that previously reported in adults and may be due to particular sensitivity of pulmonary veins to inhaled NO when pulmonary venous hypertension has been present since birth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a small series encountered at the university medical center during the last five years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract This report presents a 15 year review of the surgical treatment of 9 patients with congenital mitral stenosis seen at the Columbus Children's Hospital. The over-all mortality rate was 45 per cent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Developmental Delay
  • delay-facial dysmorphism-camptodactyly syndrome Macrothrombocytopenia with mitral valve insufficiency MAC spectrum MACS syndrome Macular amyloidosis Macular coloboma-cleft palate-hallux valgus syndrome Macular corneal dystrophy Maculopapular cutaneous[orpha.net]
Hypoxemia
  • The classic facial appearance in mitral stenosis, a plum-colored malar flush, occurs only when cardiac output is low and pulmonary hypertension is severe; cause is cutaneous vasodilation and chronic hypoxemia.[merckmanuals.com]
Multiple Congenital Anomalies
  • […] without intellectual disability Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome type 2 Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome type 3 Multiple congenital anomalies-intellectual[orpha.net]
Paroxysmal Cough
  • cough are results of pulmonary edema that is punctuated by lower respiratory infections. 1, 21 – 23 Congenital mitral stenosis is occasionally associated with syncope 21 but seldom with hemoptysis. 23 Aphonia has been attributed to compression of the[clinicalgate.com]
Failure to Thrive
  • All were symptomatic with severe congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Effective reduction in mitral gradient was initially achieved in 7 patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On detailed evaluation, it was found that the child had severe breathlessness, feeding difficulty, failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory tract infection. On examination, the child had signs of congestive heart failure.[jscisociety.com]
  • Institutional criteria for intervention in patients with congenital MS during this period included significant symptoms of congestive heart failure despite medical therapy, failure to thrive, and/or systemic right ventricular pressure.[circ.ahajournals.org]

Treatment

  • Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a reasonable alternative to surgical treatment for typical congenital mitral stenosis even in young children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract This report presents a 15 year review of the surgical treatment of 9 patients with congenital mitral stenosis seen at the Columbus Children's Hospital. The over-all mortality rate was 45 per cent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical trials often give patients access to leading-edge treatments that are not yet widely available.[utswmedicine.org]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Double transseptal, double-balloon valvuloplasty is an effective treatment for many forms of congenital mitral stenosis. Mitral regurgitation is uncommon after this procedure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many children with congenital heart defects don't need treatment, but others do. Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants.[icdlist.com]

Prognosis

  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with supramitral ring constitute a subset of patients with congenital mitral stenosis who have a relatively good prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This technology is particularly suited for congenital heart disease in which there is a clear need for more clear and accurate delineation of the congenital heart defects from a 3-dimensional perspective for diagnosis, assessment, and prognosis of these[books.google.de]
  • […] stenosis, and congestive heart failure in a duck. ( 18485855 ) Mitchell E.B....Thomas W.P. 2008 7 Congenital mitral stenosis: a rare presentation and novel approach to management. ( 17258606 ) Sosland R.P....Gorton M.E. 2007 8 Supramitral ring: good prognosis[malacards.org]
  • The prognosis is much improved in patients who undergo surgical or percutaneous relief of valve obstruction. [ 1 ] However, life expectancy is still shortened compared with that expected for age, largely because of the complications of mitral stenosis[patient.info]
  • Treatment and prognosis The decision to treat mitral stenosis is based on the severity and presence of complications.[radiopaedia.org]

Etiology

  • Etiology In addition to being a sequela of rheumatic fever, which is the most common cause world-wide, there are numerous other causes 2-4 : mitral annular calcification with leaflet involvement an age-related cause congenital mitral stenosis infective[radiopaedia.org]
  • Etiology Most commonly due to rheumatic fever Autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis Rare inherited metabolic diseases: mucopolysaccharidoses of the Hunter-Hurler phenotype, Fabry disease Congenital Some conditions may[amboss.com]
  • Other uncommon etiologies include congenital stenosis of the mitral valve or age-related calcification. Overview Stenosis of the mitral valve considerably increases the resistance to blood flow between the left atrium and the left ventricle.[pathwaymedicine.org]
  • Etiology of Mitral Stenosis Causes of Mitral Stenosis The most common cause of mitral valve stenosis is rheumatic fever, which, however, may date back many years.[lecturio.com]
  • Protocol for Atrial Septal Defects The following protocol for echo in adult patients with atrial septal defects (ASDs) is a guide for performing a comprehensive assessment More information Valvular Heart Disease Valvular Heart Disease General Principles Etiology[healthdocbox.com]

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology MS (75-80 have associated lesions) MR MSR 3 Pathophysiology of Congenital Mitral Valve Disease Malformation of the mitral valve apparatus results in mitral stenosis, insufficiency, or both.[powershow.com]
  • […] metabolic diseases: mucopolysaccharidoses of the Hunter-Hurler phenotype, Fabry disease Congenital Some conditions may mimic mitral stenosis: bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve with large vegetation, left atrial myxoma Degenerative aortic stenosis Pathophysiology[amboss.com]
  • However, increased LAP results in a number of pathophysiological consequences described below.[pathwaymedicine.org]
  • Source(s): Mitral Stenosis Pathophysiology The normal mitral valve orifice area is 4-6 cm 2 . Mitral stenosis occurs when the orifice area is reduced to at least 2.2 cm 2 .[wikiecho.org]
  • Pathophysiology of Mitral Stenosis What Happens in Mitral Stenosis? Because of the stenosis of a mitral valve, the blood cannot flow properly into the left ventricle.[lecturio.com]

Prevention

  • Cardiac rehabilitation is a critical component of recovery and can prevent future heart disease.[utswmedicine.org]
  • Prevention Follow your provider's recommendations for treating conditions that can cause valve disease. Treat strep infections promptly to prevent rheumatic fever. Tell your provider if you have a family history of congenital heart diseases.[mountsinai.org]
  • Rheumatic fever is very rare in this country due to the use of effective antibiotics to prevent infections.[heart.org]
  • Prevention Prevention of rheumatic fever. Prevention of endocarditis. British Heart Foundation Carabello BA ; Modern management of mitral stenosis. Circulation. 2005 Jul 19112(3):432-7.[patient.info]
  • Once the left ventricle is filled it contracts, to pump the blood out to the body — and the mitral valve closes to prevent the blood from going backwards into the left atrium.[verywell.com]

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