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Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Type 1A



  • Neuromuscular syndromes are presented clinically either as a case study or as an overview from the literature, accompanied by text presenting molecular defects, and differential diagnosis.[books.google.com]
  • Laminin alpha-2 negative congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) presenting with a mild phenotype. Neurology. 2004;63:1118–21.[link.springer.com]
  • Many different groups of CMDs are present. Merosin-deficient CMD type 1A (MDC1A) is the most common form of CMD.[pediatricneurosciences.com]
Feeding Difficulties
  • Another frequent problem is feeding difficulties and the accompanied weight loss. In the worst cases patients die in childhood. There is no cure for MDC1A and no therapy that combats the underlying cause.[voorsara.nl]
  • Feeding difficulties due to decreased suck and swallow can result in recurrent aspiration and poor nutrition.[egl-eurofins.com]
  • The early onset form is most commonly associated with a complete absence of merosin on muscle biopsy with profound neonatal hypotonia, possible respiratory distress and feeding difficulties while the late onset form presents with proximal muscle weakness[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • In literature, several studies have reported respiratory insufficiency, feeding difficulties, cardiomyopathy, sensory and motor demyelinating neuropathy, seizure, and external ophthalmoplegia. [3], [6], [7], [8] Our patients manifested with generalized[pediatricneurosciences.com]
  • Recently we found that transient hypothermia greatly enhances AAV delivery into the spinal cord and brain. We have also engineered new chimeric mini-agrin genes with broadened binding substrates and higher affinities.[grantome.com]
  • Feeding difficulties due to decreased suck and swallow can result in recurrent aspiration and poor nutrition.[egl-eurofins.com]
  • Respiration, human phonation, as well as gestation, depend on the laryngeal and pharyngeal musculature.[books.google.com]


  • PMID 20301468. update 2012 a b c "Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Other Tests". emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28. a b c "Congenital muscular dystrophy".[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Lack of dystrophin leads to cellular instability at these links, with progressive leakage of intracellular components; this results in the high levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) noted on routine blood workup of patients with Duchenne MD.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Creatine Phosphokinase Increased
  • phosphokinase Increased serum CK Increased serum creatine kinase Increased serum creatine phosphokinase [3] Some reports indicate that people with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy may may benefit from cyclosporin A.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]


  • Additional diseases which may benefit from treatment with TXA127 include congenital muscular dystrophies, Marfan Syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).[prnewswire.com]
  • Such a new pharmaceutical treatment will provide improved quality of life and potentially a prolonged life span for the patient.[drugtargetreview.com]
  • The Handbook of Clinical Neurology Vol 101: Muscular Dystrophies discusses the pathogenesis and treatment prospects for muscular dystrophies.[books.google.es]
  • You may also want to contact a university or tertiary medical center in your area, because these centers tend to see more complex cases and have the latest technology and treatments.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
  • Lastly, latent and active TGF-β are upregulated in the serum of DyW mice, but only active TGF-β levels are attenuated by Losartan treatment.[content.iospress.com]


  • The prognosis is poor, as many affected children do not reach adolescence. It is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
  • The awareness of this entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis as infantile polymyositis, as the treatment and prognosis of these two entities are different. Financial support and sponsorship Nil.[annalsofian.org]
  • Prognosis Despite modern advances in gene therapy and molecular biology, MD remains incurable.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Prognosis varies across the muscular dystrophies with some patients experiencing mild, though usually progressive symptoms, while others experience severe disability and early mortality [ 1 ].[karger.com]


  • Etiology Classification of types of muscular dystrophy The etiology of MD is an abnormality in the genetic code for specific muscle proteins. [8] They all are classified according to the clinical phenotype, the pathology, and the mode of inheritance.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Diagnosis and etiology of congenital muscular dystrophy. Neurology 2008;71:312-21. [ PUBMED ] 8. Hoffman EP, Pegoraro E. Laminin alpha 2 (merosin) gene mutations. In: Karpati G, editor. Structural and Molecular Basis of Skeletal Muscle Diseases.[annalsofian.org]


  • Magee A, Nevin NC: The epidemiology of myotonic dystrophy in Northern Ireland. Community Genet 1999;2:179-183. McKeever K, Magee A: Epidemiology and genetics of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in Northern Ireland. Am J Hum Genet 2003;73:373.[karger.com]
  • Genetic epidemiology of congenital muscular dystrophy in a sample from north-east Italy. Hum Genet. 1996; 97 (3): 277-9[ DOI ][ PubMed ] 7. He Z, Luo X, Liang L, Li P, Li D, Zhe M.[ijp.tums.pub]
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Epidemiology of the Muscular Dystrophies. Can J Neurol Sci. 2016; 43(1):163-77. PMID: 26786644 Lemmers, RJ, et al.[invitae.com]
  • In distal MD, it is at the 2q12-14 loci. [12] Epidemiology United States statistics The incidence of MD varies, depending on the specific type of MD under consideration.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • This new set of data explains, at least in part, why many of these disorders are interconnected, though the primary pathophysiological events, such as gene mutations, may be different for each disorder.[books.google.com]
  • Research is increasingly showing that these two conditions also share several pathophysiological mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, abnormal modulation of autophagy, decline in satellite cells, increased generation of[books.google.es]
  • Mechanism [ edit ] In terms of the mechanism of congenital muscular dystrophy, one finds that though there are many types of CMD the glycosylation of α-dystroglycan and alterations in those genes that are involved are an important part of this conditions pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of the congenital muscular dystrophies depends on the specific genetic defect for each of the dystrophies and is discussed with each of the congenital muscular dystrophies below.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • Physiotherapy can help prevent the ‘contractures’, children may develop or are borne with, and a programme of exercises should be worked out with a physiotherapist very soon after diagnosis, but surgery is often eventually required to release contractures[voorsara.nl]
  • Omigapil is an anti-apoptotic drug designed to prevent cell death.[strongly.mda.org]
  • Muscular Dystrophy Symptoms of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy People with congenital MD may: Have problems with motor function and muscle control that appear at birth or during infancy Develop chronic shortening of muscles or tendons around joints, which prevents[familydiagnosis.com]
  • The research team studied the outcome of combining the following single mode treatments: increasing regeneration, by overexpressing muscle specific insulin like growth factor-1, IGF-1 and preventing cell death, by inhibiting the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic[sciencedaily.com]
  • Division of Human Development and Disability, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Muscular dystrophy: diagnostic tools. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[emedicine.medscape.com]

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