Dark red to purple to black skin discoloration is the presentation. Many factors modify the clinical presentation of contusions. These include the type of tissue affected, severity of trauma, age, sex, skin color and systemic diseases (like bleeding disorders). Systemic diseases usually give rise to small bruises (petechiae) whereas trauma or mechanical compression causes single large contusions involving vast expanse of skin.
Clinical presentation of contusion also depends on the affected organ. Based on the involved structure, contusions are of following types.
- Subcutaneous contusion (underneath the skin)
- Muscular contusion (involving muscle tissue)
- Periosteal ontusion (involving bone)
- Pulmonary contusion (involving lung)  
- Cerebral contusion  
- Myocardial contusion   
Subcutaneous contusions present as:
- Purple or bluish discoloration of the skin
- Localized pain
Intramuscular contusions seldom show on the skin surface. Pain is the main symptom of such contusions. Limitation of the range of motion is also common in such cases. Periosteal contusions are the most painful ones and may present as visible swelling. Pulmonary contusion is accompanied by respiratory symptoms like difficulty in breathing or wheezing. Cerebral contusions present with headache, impaired orientation, vomiting, seizures, syncope and coma.
Entire Body System
RESULTS: Seventeen cases (54.8%) in the unilateral operation group survived and were in good condition, 8 (25.8%) had moderate disability, 4 (12.9%) had severe disability, 1 (3.2%) was in vegetative state, and 1 (3.2%) died. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, stiffness and disability often develop when activity ends. For this reason, conservative measures are necessary to prevent the injury from getting worse by continuing to play. [uwhealth.org]
The scope of the project seemed tacitly clear from the outset – far inter-planetary expedition and rigorous philosophical inquiry. [residentadvisor.net]
Using a T•Shellz Wrap ® will not expose you to the risk of causing further harm to soft tissue like you can when using rigorous exercise. [aidyourhamstring.com]
- Difficulty Walking
Other symptoms may include: Grade 1 - Mild Contusion Tenderness in the area of the injury Slight swelling, if any Tightness in the calf muscles Possible difficulties walking but range of motion isn't affected much Grade 2 - Moderate Contusion Limping [aidyourhamstring.com]
Prodrome can include headache, fever, malaise, and photophobia. Vesicles at the tip of the nose, referred to as Hutchinson’s sign, strongly predict eye involvement with HZ. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Jaw & Teeth
- Bleeding Gums
When to Call a Doctor Come to your closest Southcoast Health Urgent Care Center location or contact your doctor if you notice any of the following with your bruise: A lump forms over the bruise Abnormal bleeding, such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, or [southcoast.org]
Unexplained bruises that occur easily or for no apparent reason may indicate a bleeding disorder, especially if the bruising is accompanied by frequent nosebleeds or bleeding gums. [webmd.com]
Sometimes flushing and cleaning the eye to rid it of the chemical or object causes redness and irritation. Signs and symptoms, which may include watery eyes and a mucous discharge, usually clear up on their own within about a day. [mayoclinic.org]
Careful flushing of the eyes with saline is a standard treatment for chemical conjunctivitis. People with chemical conjunctivitis also may need to use topical steroids. [aoa.org]
Additionally, patients presenting with glaucoma may have a semi-dilated pupil, corneal opacity, ciliary flush, and elevated intraocular pressure. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
These floods were necessary to flush and clean the water of human and agricultural waste. As a result, the water is becoming more polluted. [nationalgeographic.org]
They help to flush out allergens, irritants, and discharge. Share on Pinterest Eye drops containing antihistamines can help relieve pain associated with pinkeye. Some over-the-counter medications can help minimize pinkeye symptoms. [medicalnewstoday.com]
Petechia — Plural, petechiae. A tiny purple or red spot on the skin resulting from a hemorrhage under the skin's surface. Purpura — A group of disorders characterized by purplish or reddish brown areas of discoloration visible through the skin. [encyclopedia.com]
"Petechiae, anemia, and throbocytopenia". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. ^ Lotti, Torello (January 1994). "The Purpuras". International Journal of Dermatology. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4362.1994.tb01483.x. ^ Turley, Lois (2004-03-10). [en.wikipedia.org]
Systemic diseases usually give rise to small bruises (petechiae) whereas trauma or mechanical compression causes single large contusions involving vast expanse of skin. Clinical presentation of contusion also depends on the affected organ. [symptoma.com]
출혈(Other neonatal gastrointestinal haemorrhage) P54.4 신생아 부신 출혈(Neonatal adrenal haemorrhage) P54.5 신생아 피부 출혈(Neonatal cutaneous haemorrhage) 태아 또는 신생아의 타박상(Bruising in fetus or newborn) 태아 또는 신생아의 반상출혈(Ecchymoses in fetus or newborn) 태아 또는 신생아의 점상출혈(Petechiae [dic.impact.pe.kr]
Contusion of trachea nerve - see Injury, nerve newborn P54.5 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code P54.5 Neonatal cutaneous hemorrhage 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Code on Newborn Record Applicable To Neonatal bruising Neonatal ecchymoses Neonatal petechiae [icd10data.com]
- Excessive Tearing
Signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis If your child has conjunctivitis, they may have: a red or pink eye (or both eyes) redness behind the eyelid swelling of the eyelids, making them appear puffy excessive tears a yellow-green discharge from the eye which [rch.org.au]
People with conjunctivitis may experience the following symptoms: A gritty feeling in one or both eyes Itching or burning sensation in one or both eyes Excessive tearing Discharge from one or both eyes Swollen eyelids Pink discoloration to the whites [aoa.org]
[…] forces caused a ruptured aorta, rib fractures, severe myocardial contusions, etc.• I was a mosaic of contusions.• Small contusion on the right cheek as well.• Police questioned what Sheppard claimed was a spinal contusion. [ldoceonline.com]
[…] took to dislocate the hip, whether it is accompanied by a fracture (fracture/dislocation), and whether or not the patient has had a previous hip replacement on the affected side. view Thigh Fractures Thigh bone (femur) fractures usually occur in younger [rocmd.com]
There were two fractures of the posterolateral aspect of the tibial plateau and two fractures of the posteromedial aspect of the tibial plateau. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
‘The same mechanisms that produce toe fractures may cause a ligament sprain, contusion, dislocation, tendon injury, or other soft tissue injury.’ [en.oxforddictionaries.com]
Difference between Bone Bruise and Fracture A bone bruise and fracture can occur from the same causes, but once again, they have unique differences. Fracture pains tend to feel sharper where bone bruises tend to feel deeper and achier. [belmarrahealth.com]
- Muscle Strain
Next to muscle strains, contusions are the second leading cause of sports injuries. Contusions cause muscle to be crushed against the bone. This can result in ruptured blood vessels and torn muscle fibers, but contusions do not break the skin. [lancasterortho.com]
Similar to quadriceps muscle strains, corticosteroids are not recommended in the treatment of contusion injuries. [physio-pedia.com]
Contusions should not be confused with a muscle strain, which tends to occur as a result of a sudden movement or burst of speed, and should be treated slightly differently to strains. [sportsinjuryclinic.net]
Physiotherapy for Muscle Contusions Physiotherapy and Muscle Strains Physiotherapy for Sports Injuries See Also All About Muscle Injuries Read More On Conditions and Injuries l All About Physiotherapy P.S.: Thank you for visiting our website. [physiotherapynotes.com]
Mixmike / E+ / Getty Images Muscle contusions are very common sports injuries, second in frequency in athletes only to muscle strains. [verywellhealth.com]
Face, Head & Neck
Patients may have facial or orbital pain, diplopia, enophthalmos, hypesthesia of the cheek and upper lip (due to infraorbital nerve entrapment or injury), epistaxis, and subcutaneous emphysema. [merckmanuals.com]
Bolesť v mieste vpichu Periférny edém Ochorenie podobné chrípke Bolesť Asténia Pyrexia Zimnica Hematóm v mieste vpichu Opuch v mieste vpichu English Common Fatigue Injection site bruising Injection site pain Oedema peripheral Influenza like illness Pain Asthenia [mymemory.translated.net]
Workup in contusions consists of the following elements.
- Physical examination for muscle contusions
- X-ray for pulmonary contusions
- CT scans for cerebral contusions
- MRI for cerebral contusions
- Ultrasound for intraabdominal contusions
- Complete blood count (CBC) for assessment of bleeding disorders
- Serum creatinine kinase levels
The treatment of contusions consists of:
- Cold packing
- Limb immobilization
- Elevation to prevent the pooling of blood and subsequent edema formation.
- Analgesics, for example, acetaminophen to relieve mild pain. It can be combined with codeine, oxycodone or hydrocodone for moderate to severe pain.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) to reduce swelling.
- Corticosteroid therapy should be avoided as it interferes with the healing process.
- Physiotherapy may be required as a rehabilitative measure for muscle contusions.
- Treatment of the underlying cause.
- Surgical treatment is sometimes required in special cases such as cerebral contusion and compartment syndrome .
Massive internal contusion can prove to be fatal if left untreated . Other causes like leukemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, hemophilia, subdural hematoma etc. can also lead to fatal complications if not addressed properly.
There are many different causes of contusion. Most commonly, it occurs due to blunt trauma (as a result of fall, blunt ended weapon injury, sports injury etc.). Mechanical compression of the tissues as seen in road traffic accidents may also cause contusions. Fractures and ligament tears (such as anterior or posterior cruciate ligaments tears) are also associated with the development of bruising and contusion. Muscle strains may also lead to the formation of contusions. Bites received from animals may also cause the formation of contusions.
Internal organs may also develop contusions as a result of trauma. Intraabdominal contusions are very frequent after blunt abdominal injuries. Injuries to the head may cause the development of intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
A number of diseases and conditions predispose the patient to the development of contusions. Notable among them are bleeding disorders such as hemophilia B (Christmas disease). Deficiency of the factors involved in the clotting cascade (such as deficiency of factors II, V, VII and X) also increase the risk for the formation of contusions. Contusions are also frequently seen in the patients with reduced platelet count and those with von willebrand disease. Henoch Schloein purpura is also associated with deep bruising. Leukemias may also predispose the patient to the development of contusions.
The exact prevalence of contusions is difficult to establish as majority of the cases go unreported. Contusions are more common in young children and teenagers. Individuals with bleeding and coagulation disorders are also at higher risk.
One-third of the sports injuries result in muscle contusions. Rotator cuff and gastrocnemius injuries are the commonly reported ones.
When external trauma occurs to the tissues, the localized blood vessels rupture. The blood oozes out and accumulates in the tissue spaces, causing formation of a hematoma. Injury to the capillary endothelium triggers the release of endothelin that causes the vasoconstriction, preventing further leakage of blood out of the vessels.
The injury also causes the release of Von-Willebrand factor that triggers the coagulation cascade, resulting in localized clot formation to stem the blood leakage. Involvement of nerve endings can give rise to pain sensations.
The blood is clotted and plugged locally. Tissue plasminogen activator begins the clot resolution, during which the hematoma or the bruise undergoes various color changes due to accumulation of hemoglobin breakdown products as a result of phagocytosis of cellular debris. The clot ultimately dissolves completely.
The age of the bruise can be estimated by external skin discoloration.
- Red: 0-2 days
- Blue or purple: 2-5 days
- Green: 5-7 days
- Yellow: 7-10 days
- Brown: 10-14 days
- Safety equipment like helmets and driving belts should be employed while driving or riding a bike.
- Proper head gear should be worn while engaging in close contact sports like wrestling and boxing in which the risk of blows and blunt trauma is high.
- In case of diagnosed bleeding disorders, care should be exercised to avoid bruising as a result of fall or similar trauma.
- Easy bruising is indicative of a more sinister pathology and must be immediately brought to the attention of a consultant.
Immediate management of injuries should be done to avoid fatal complications like pulmonary contusion.
Commonly referred to as a deep bruise, a contusion develops as a result of rupture of small blood vessels and the accumulation of blood in the tissue spaces. Purple or bluish discoloration is the common presentation of a contusion. The underlying pathology and the clinical presentation of contusions vary greatly. Conservative treatment modalities can help in healing of contusions.
A contusion or bruise is accumulation of blood as a result of bursting of small blood vessels as a result of blunt force trauma or a multitude of other causes. Bleeding disorders like hemophilia can also precipitate bruising. Result is deep purple or bluish discolorations, swelling and pain. A bruise usually resolves itself in about 2-3 weeks.
Observing road safety measures can prevent contusions due to major trauma like accidents. Other preventive measures include wearing head gear and protective padding during sports activities. If bruising occurs repeatedly and even after minor injuries, a physician should be immediately consulted as it may indicate presence of other threatening conditions.
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- Kawamata T, Katayama Y. Surgical management of early massive edema caused by cerebral contusion in head trauma patients. Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement. 2006;96:3-6.
- Gorman PW, McAndrew MP. Acute anterior compartmental syndrome of the thigh following contusion. A case report and review of the literature. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 1987;1(1):68-70.