A corpus luteum cyst develops from a corpus luteum that does not dissolve after ovulation.
This clinical presentation of CL cyst is variable. While some patients with ruptured cysts exhibit mild unilateral discomfort, others will experience acute unilateral pelvic pain that is sharp in nature. Furthermore, the pain may occur with sexual intercourse, trauma, or physical activity  .
Remarkable findings may include peritoneal signs, abdominal distention, and pelvic tenderness.
The workup consists of the patient's presentation, history, physical exam, and the relevant studies. The clinical assessment should rule out differential diagnoses such as ectopic pregnancy, acute appendicitis, etc.
A serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) - level must be obtained to determine the pregnancy status and the potential for an ectopic pregnancy  . A complete blood count (CBC) is another important test.
Pelvic/abdominal ultrasonography is the initial imaging study of choice. This modality demonstrates the presence of free hypoechoic fluid  . Color doppler is used to reflect the vascularity of the cyst, which may display the "ring of fire" sign.
A computed tomography (CT) scan depicts the CL cyst as a well-circumscribed, unilocular adnexal mass. The lesion is usually less than 3 cm and features a thick wall and peripheral vascularization .
Hemodynamically stable patients can be managed conservatively through monitoring of the vital signs and hemoglobin levels, repeat imaging, and pain management .
The management of cysts found incidentally on ultrasonography depends on the size and characteristics of the mass. Larger cysts may require follow-up to ensure resolution .
Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are not used for the treatment of functional ovarian cysts since they have not proven to be effective .
The CL cyst arises from the failure of the corpus luteum to regress after fertilization . It may also be caused by clomiphene, which is a fertility drug that induces ovulation.
Ovarian cysts are extremely common as almost all women of reproductive age will exhibit these on transvaginal ultrasound.
Once an ovum is released from the mature follicle during ovulation, the remnants of the latter, known as corpus luteum, will secrete progesterone in anticipation and preparation of a pregnancy. If conception does not occur, the CL should spontaneously involute a few days after ovulation. Failure to dissolve will cause the CL to collect fluid and blood and form into a cyst. The latter has the potential to rupture.
OCPs can prevent the formation of functional ovarian cysts.
A corpus luteum (CL) cyst is one of two types of functional ovarian cysts. The clinical presentation of women with this cyst ranges from no symptoms to severe abdominal and pelvic pain. Complications include cyst rupture, which may have serious consequences. Diagnosis is achieved through evaluation of the clinical manifestations, the physical exam, and the appropriate studies. Management depends on the hemodynamic stability and overall picture. Prompt surgery is warranted in cases with hemoperitoneum.
A corpus luteal (CL) cyst is a type of ovarian cyst. The clinical presentation ranges from no symptoms to severe abdominal and pelvic pain. Diagnosis is achieved through evaluation of the signs and symptoms, physical exam, and studies such as a pregnancy test, ultrasound, etc. The treatment depends on the hemodynamic stability and overall picture. Prompt surgery is warranted in cases with serious hemorrhage.