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Corynebacterium Diphtheriae

Corynebact Diphtheriae


Presentation

  • The patient reported no I.V. drug use, so it can be assumed that no risk factors for infective endocarditis were present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Analysis using mGenomeSubtractor ( 7 ) indicated that 1,982 coding sequences (CDS) were present in both strains, with 318 CDS being present in C. diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529 that were not present in C. diphtheriae bv. gravis NCTC 13129.[doi.org]
Cervical Lymphadenopathy
  • She also has marked cervical lymphadenopathy and edema of the neck. She is immediately admitted for monitoring, antibiotics, and antitoxin.[step1.medbullets.com]
  • On examination cervical lymphadenopathy was noted along with grayish white membrane in the throat. What is your diagnosis? Clinically, this appears to be a case of pharyngeal or faucial diphtheria.[microrao.com]
  • A few other smaller cervical lymphadenopathies were present. Laboratory analyses revealed a normal C-reactive protein (CRP) (5 mg/l) and normal complete blood count. Renal and hepatic functions were also normal.[frontiersin.org]
Fever
  • A 54-year-old female with a prosthetic mitral valve presented with a 3-day history of dizziness, subjective fever, and chills. Blood cultures were positive for a pleomorphic Gram-positive rod.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Malaise
  • Its symptoms include sore throat, fever, and malaise. A thick, gray-green fibrin membrane, the 'pseudomembrane', can be found at the site where infection occurs.[creative-diagnostics.com]
  • Diphtheria is most commonly an infection of the upper respiratory tract and causes fever, sore throat, and malaise.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The illness is characterized by fever, malaise, and sore throat with a distinguishing thick pseudomembrane present over the involved mucosa. A swab from beneath the pseudomembrane is the preferred specimen for culture.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
Chills
  • A 54-year-old female with a prosthetic mitral valve presented with a 3-day history of dizziness, subjective fever, and chills. Blood cultures were positive for a pleomorphic Gram-positive rod.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other clinical manifestations may include a sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness, enlarged lymph nodes, difficulty breathing, nasal discharge, fever, and chills.[dentalcare.com]
  • Symptoms : Should your child get diphtheria, he would come down with a sore throat, a mild fever (101 degrees or less), chills, and swollen neck glands.[thevaccinemom.com]
  • It usually affects the nose and throat and causes a bad sore throat, swollen glands, fever, and chills.[fpnotebook.com]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • He presented with fever, epistaxis and congestive heart failure. He received high-dose penicillin therapy and diphtheria antitoxin with clinical improvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Systemic complications that are life-threatening may occur as a result of the action of diphtheria toxin on peripheral motor the myocardium and neurons, such as loss of motor function and congestive heart failure.[creative-diagnostics.com]
  • Congestive heart failure. These are the clinical signs of nasopharyngeal diphtheria infection: A sore throat. Dysphagia. Bloody nasal discharge. Pseudomembrane formation.[labpedia.net]
Pertussis
  • There are four combination vaccines available to prevent diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis: DTaP, Tdap, DT, and Td.[dentalcare.com]
  • Today, the diphtheria toxoid vaccine, which is in most formulations combined with tetanus and pertussis antigens, is one of the oldest and safest vaccines known.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Anticoagulant Drugs 47 terms Antihypertensive Drugs 39 terms Antihyperlipidemics 16 terms Antianginal Drugs THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... 15 terms Stages of Disease and Reservoirs of Infection 15 terms Linezolid/Synercid 7 terms Case Study: Bordetella pertussis[quizlet.com]
  • Review Topic QID: 106293 1 Pertussis toxin inhibits the G-protein Gi alpha subunit via ADP ribosylation 2 Overactivates guanylate cyclase 3 Inactivates the 60S ribosomal subunit 4 Inactivates elongation factor 2 M1 Select Answer to see Preferred Response[step1.medbullets.com]
Stridor
  • Case reports Case 1 A 10-year-old female child presented to the Pediatric emergency with history of fever, respiratory distress and stridor.[ijmm.org]
  • She did not have stridor, respiratory distress, cardiac murmur, or organomegaly. The remainder of the examination was normal.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • If disease is severe, hoarseness and stridor follow. Some patients exhibit a classic “bull neck” due to severe pharyngeal edema and involvement of the tonsils, submandibular lymph nodes, uvula, and anterior neck.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Hoarseness
  • Other clinical manifestations may include a sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness, enlarged lymph nodes, difficulty breathing, nasal discharge, fever, and chills.[dentalcare.com]
  • Symptoms Diphtheria signs and symptoms usually begin two to five days after a person becomes infected and may include: A thick, gray membrane covering your throat and tonsils A sore throat and hoarseness Swollen glands (enlarged lymph nodes) in your neck[mayoclinic.org]
  • If disease is severe, hoarseness and stridor follow. Some patients exhibit a classic “bull neck” due to severe pharyngeal edema and involvement of the tonsils, submandibular lymph nodes, uvula, and anterior neck.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Pharyngeal Edema
  • Some patients exhibit a classic “bull neck” due to severe pharyngeal edema and involvement of the tonsils, submandibular lymph nodes, uvula, and anterior neck.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Tonsillar Exudate
  • She had conjunctival erythema, cracked, red lips, and bilateral tonsillar exudates. Cervical nodes were tender and not fluctuant. Plantar desquamation was present. She did not have stridor, respiratory distress, cardiac murmur, or organomegaly.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Exudative Pharyngitis
  • The onset is sudden, with malaise, sore throat, exudative pharyngitis, and a low-grade fever.[bacteriologynotes.com]
  • Of the child cases, one had congenital cardiac disease, one had recent undergone a major dental treatment and one had an episode of non-exudative pharyngitis two weeks prior to the onset of infection.[omicsonline.org]
Skin Ulcer
  • ulcers and sore throats.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the cases presented here, skin ulceration was uncommon (1 case), but dental caries were found in 22% of cases. Dental caries could be a portal of entry. The main limitation of this work is lack of complete data.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • The lesions then turn into painful skin ulcers with slightly curved and elevated margins ranging from several millimeters to a few centimeters. During the first two weeks the lesions may be covered with a dark pseudomembrane.[wiki.ggc.edu]
Neck Swelling
  • Examination was significant for an afebrile, ill-appearing child with prominent neck swelling and left neck redness. She had conjunctival erythema, cracked, red lips, and bilateral tonsillar exudates. Cervical nodes were tender and not fluctuant.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Less common consequences include myocarditis (about 20% of cases) and peripheral neuropathy (about 10% of cases) ( Wikipedia ).[bacteria.cz]
  • Diphtheria vaccines protect against the toxin responsible for pseudomembranes, myocardiopathy, and peripheral neuropathy and are 97% efficacious. 1, 16 Vaccines do not protect against colonization by nontoxigenic C diphtheriae. 22 Although the toxin is[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Other complications include cardiac dilatation and failure, mycotic aneurysm, endocarditis, rhythm disturbances, secondary bacterial pneumonia, cranial nerve dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy, total paralysis, septicemia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis[microrao.com]

Workup

  • The reliable detection of toxigenic Corynebacterium spp. is of substantial importance for both diphtheria surveillance in the public health sector and the clinical workup of a patient with diphtherialike symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Decreased Platelet Count
  • Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated white blood cell count (17,8 10 3 /μl) with 34% of band neutrophils and 51% of granulocytes, decreased platelet count (29 10 3 /μl), slightly elevated liver enzymes (AST 52 U/L, ALT 41 U/L, LDH 589 U/L, alkaline[ann-clinmicrob.biomedcentral.com]
Gram-Positive Rods
  • Blood cultures were positive for a pleomorphic Gram-positive rod. Initial phenotypic testing could only support the identification of a Corynebacterium species.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Abstract Many surface proteins in Gram-positive bacteria are covalently linked to the cell wall through a transpeptidation reaction catalysed by the enzyme sortase.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Gram stain also shows gram-positive bacteria. Possible References Used Back to tests[labpedia.net]
  • […] facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive organism that is characterized by non-encapsulated, non-sporulated, immobile, straight or curved rods. [1] [2] The genome of C. diphtheriae contains 2,488,635 nucleotides, 2,389 genes, and 69 structural RNA genes. [3] As a gram-positive[wikidoc.org]
  • The molecular switch that activates the cell wall anchoring step of pilus assembly in Gram-positive bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(37):14147–52.[bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com]
Prolonged PR Interval
  • A prolonged PR interval with changes in the ST-T waves were noted on her electrocardiogram. The immunization history of the child was complete with two booster doses at 1.5 years and 5 years respectively.[ijmm.org]

Treatment

  • The differences in length of treatment within each group make the comparison of outcome (mortality, need for surgical intervention, disease and treatment complications) difficult.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • […] die of the infection if left untreated, and 1 in 10 die, despite treatment Please find comprehensive information on Diphtheria regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • […] pertussis 5 doses before school-age, completed by 4-6 years of age Tdap vaccine booster vaccine at 11-12 years of age should also be given to pregnant mothers and those around them Td vaccine tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine at 10-year intervals Prognosis[step1.medbullets.com]
  • Prognosis : If your child were to contract diphtheria and be hospitalized immediately, he would most likely recover.[thevaccinemom.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria, a potential fatal disease caused by a corynephage toxin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diphtheria and its Etiological Agents Pages 1-14 Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis—General Aspects Guaraldi, Ana Luíza de Mattos (et al.)[springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • We report a bloodstream infection caused by a nontoxigenic strain of C. diphtheriae and discuss the epidemiology, possible sources of the infection, and the implications of rapid species identification of corynebacteria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria and occurs in 2 forms, respiratory and cutaneous diphtheria[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • Pathophysiology C.diphtheriae causes diphtheria disease in non-immunized human hosts via secreted toxins. [1] [2] Toxigenic strains of the bacterium will secrete toxins in nasopharyngeal or skin lesions ; it is common for hosts to carry C. diphtheriae[wikidoc.org]
  • Advances in anesthetic and surgical techniques, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of pain, the development of new opioid and […] Read More Weak And Strong Opioids May 4, 2018 Medical library WEAK OPIOIDS A collection of medications that[medicallibraryonline.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable infection. There are four combination vaccines available to prevent diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis: DTaP, Tdap, DT, and Td.[dentalcare.com]
  • Infections, Pneumococcal 3 3 Completed Prevention Bacterial Infections / Neisseria Meningitidis / Virus Diseases 1 3 Completed Prevention Mumps / Rubella / Rubeola 1 3 Not Yet Recruiting Prevention Infections, Pneumococcal 1 3 Recruiting Prevention Infections[drugbank.ca]
  • April 2017 Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Diphtheria, prevention We hold good stocks of all our antigens to ensure a rapid delivery service worldwide.[thenativeantigencompany.com]
  • Abstract As interactions between bacteria and macrophages dictate the outcome of most infectious diseases, analyses of molecular mechanisms of non-opsonic phagocytosis should lead to new approaches for the prevention of diphtheria and systemic Corynebacterium[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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