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Costochondritis

Costalchondritis

Tietze's syndrome is described as the appearance of chest pain caused by swelling of the chondrosternal joints, most frequently involving the upper ribs. The cause is still unknown, and the diagnosis is principally made on clinical grounds. Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, are useful in excluding other etiologies or to confirm an ongoing inflammatory process in the chondrosternal joints.


Presentation

Tietze's syndrome was initially described almost 100 years ago and is an inflammatory process affecting the costochondral cartilages [1] [2] [3]. The etiology and pathogenesis are yet to be elucidated but it is most frequently diagnosed in adults less than 40 years of age who suffer from numerous conditions of rheumatic and non-rheumatic origin [1] [2]. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), seronegative spondyloarthropathies, trauma, various infections (tuberculosis, brucellosis) and malignant diseases (multiple myeloma, chondrosarcomas, local invasion of breast and lung tumors, but also metastatic dissemination) are mentioned as disorders that may cause Tietze's syndrome [1] [3] [4]. Although it is often mistaken with costochondritis, however, several well-established features distinguish the two clinical entities [4]. The clinical presentation of Tietze's syndrome is demarcated by swelling and tenderness of the costosternal, costochondral and/or sternoclavicular joints, suggesting that the upper ribs are more commonly affected, whereas the manubrium of the sternum and the xiphoid process are rarely involved [1] [2]. Costochondritis, on the other hand, develops in older adults (> 40 years of age) and without swelling of the adjacent tissues [4]. Moreover, only one costal cartilage exhibits inflammatory changes (either the third or second rib) in 80% of patients with Tietze's syndrome, while multiple sites are affected in more than 70% of patients suffering from costochondritis [2] [3] [4]. In addition, one of the most important features of Tietze's syndrome is pain at the site of inflammation, which is often aggravated by coughing, deep breathing or lying prone [1] [2] [4]. Although this syndrome is benign, a relapsing/remitting course is observed, as pain can disappear spontaneously and then reappear and be present for weeks or months, often followed by swelling [1].

Soft Tissue Mass
Internal Bleeding
  • Talk with your provider before using these medicines if you have heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease, liver disease, or have had stomach ulcers or internal bleeding in the past. Take the dose as advised by the provider.[nlm.nih.gov]
Candidiasis
  • Further evaluation of ketoconazole is needed to better define its role in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis, particularly in cases associated with intravenous drug abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rib Tenderness
  • Symptoms include: a sharp pain in your upper ribs tenderness around the area of your upper ribs swelling around the area of your upper ribs Sudden movements of your ribs, during physical activity or when you cough or sneeze, may make the pain worse.[hse.ie]
Chest Wall Tenderness
  • Coronary artery disease is present in 3 to 6 percent of adult patients with chest pain and chest wall tenderness to palpation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
  • Tietze's syndrome ; www.whonamedit.com Lanham DA, Taylor AN, Chessell SJ, et al ; Non-cardiac chest pain: a clinical assessment tool. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2015 May76(5):296-300. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2015.76.5.296.[patient.info]
Right Anterior Chest Pain
  • CLINICAL FEATURES: A 21-year-old collegiate volleyball player had right anterior chest pain and midthoracic stiffness of 8 months duration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Upper Abdominal Pain
  • These findings suggest that chest pain and upper abdominal pain in adolescents rarely arise from serious problems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chest Pain
  • Costochondritis (with unknown cause) is a common cause of chest pain in children and adolescents. It accounts for 10% to 30% of all chest pain in children. Annually, doctors evaluate about 650,000 cases of chest pain in young people ages 10 to 21.[webmd.com]
  • METHODS: Patients with a chief complaint of chest pain, not due to trauma, fever, or malignancy, were prospectively evaluated for the presence of CC and compared with another chest pain group without CC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with costochondritis frequently present with acute chest pain, often resulting in multiple admissions and investigations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It causes chest pain. People who get chest pain are often frightened they have a heart or lung problem.[patient.info]
  • The condition is a common cause of chest pain.[en.wikipedia.org]
Localized Chest Pain
  • While both costochondritis and Tietze syndrome feature symptoms such as localized chest pain and tenderness, Tietze syndrome also causes swelling over the ribs and cartilage near the breastbone (sternum).[medicinenet.com]
  • The condition causes localized chest pain that you can reproduce by pushing on the cartilage in the front of your ribcage. Costochondritis is a relatively harmless condition and usually goes away without treatment.[webmd.com]

Workup

The diagnosis of Tietze's syndrome may be difficult to make without a properly obtained patient history, which provides important clues regarding the onset and course of symptoms. Furthermore, swelling and pain can be assessed only if a thorough physical examination is performed, and the exact location of pain is identified during palpation of the chest wall. Tietze's syndrome is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion, making imaging studies an essential component during workup [1]. Various techniques have been evaluated for their benefit in diagnosing Tietze's syndrome, including plain radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US), all showing limited use [2] [3]. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy, on the other hand, are currently recommended due to their ability to show inflammatory changes in the cartilage, and also because they are able to exclude other etiologies (tumors, abscesses, etc.) [2] [3]. Certain reports, however, suggest that a biopsy is the only reliable method to confirm the clinical suspicion of Tietze's syndrome, typically revealing nonspecific findings (increased vascularity, patchy loss of ground substance and degenerative changes) on histological examination [2] [5].

Pseudomonas
  • Abstract The dramatic increase in the number of heroin addicts has led to an increase in the number of infective complications seen, especially those due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The definitive treatment consists of total resection of one or both costal cartilaginous arches. The cases of two patients are described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further evaluation of ketoconazole is needed to better define its role in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis, particularly in cases associated with intravenous drug abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Adolescents are normally hypersensitive about physical symptoms, but they can be effectively reassured and an expensive diagnostic and treatment program can be avoided.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment focuses on pain relief.[mayoclinic.com]

Prognosis

  • The long-term prognosis is good.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis References Aeshilmann, A, Kahn MF (1990) Tietze's syndrome: a critical review. Clinical Experimental Rheumatology 8:407 Google Scholar Copyright information[link.springer.com]
  • What is the prognosis for costochondritis and Tietze syndrome? The outlook for costochondritis and Tietze syndrome is generally very good. Most patients respond well to conservative treatments.[medicinenet.com]
  • Prognosis [ 1 , 2 ] Costochondritis: the course is variable but symptoms usually resolve within weeks to months, with symptoms resolved within a year in the majority.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, are useful in excluding other etiologies or to confirm an ongoing inflammatory process in the chondrosternal joints.[symptoma.com]
  • Abstract Thoracic pain is an entity that can be difficult to diagnose etiologically. Once the cardiac origin has been ruled out, the rheumatologic, neoplastic, and infectious causes have to be taken into account.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Frequency United States The exact prevalence of a musculoskeletal etiology for chest pain is not known, although overall prevalence of a musculoskeletal etiology for chest pain was approximately 10% in one study.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Etiology (causes) : Direct injury to the chest, viral infections (cold / flu), idiopathic (the cause cannot be found). Its clinical manifestations : Pain, tenderness in those joints I already mention earlier.[unboundedmedicine.com]
  • In the majority of cases, the etiology of the chest pain is benign, but in one-fourth of the cases symptoms are distressing enough to cause children to miss school.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Frequency United States The exact prevalence of a musculoskeletal etiology for chest pain is not known, although overall prevalence of a musculoskeletal etiology for chest pain was approximately 10% in one study.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology [ 1 , 2 ] Chest pain accounts for 1-2% of consultations in primary care, in which setting a cardiac cause is significantly less likely than in presentations to emergency departments [ 3 ] .[patient.info]
  • Thus, cervical or shoulder problems may refer pain to the chest wall. 2 Epidemiology Costochondritis can affect children as well as adults.[aafp.org]
  • These articulations are called the costovertebral joints. [11] Epidemiology /Etiology The etiology of Tietze syndrome is unknown but Tietze syndrome is often associated in acute cases associated with viral respiratory tract infections.[physio-pedia.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • It does not appear to be an inflammatory disorder, and although the pathophysiology is unkown, could result from injury to costosternal, sternoclavicular, or costochondral articulations from severe or protracted coughing.[link.springer.com]
  • Pathophysiology Costochondritis is an inflammatory process of the costochondral or costosternal joints that causes localized pain and tenderness. Any of the 7 costochondral junctions may be affected, and more than 1 site is affected in 90% of cases.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Is it possible to prevent costochondritis and Tietze syndrome? Costochondritis and Tietze syndrome cannot be prevented. Although aggravating the symptoms can be minimized by avoiding injury to the chest wall.[medicinenet.com]
  • Costochondritis Prevention Because inflammatory costochondritis has no definite cause, there is no good way to prevent it. Costochondritis Outlook Noninfectious costochondritis will go away on its own, with or without anti-inflammatory treatment.[webmd.com]
  • Develop a thorough, clinically relevant understanding of interventions such as physical agents and therapeutic exercise in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders that produce pain, impairment, and disability.[books.google.com]
  • Trouble breathing A high fever Any signs of infection such as pus, redness, or swelling around your ribs Pain that continues or gets worse after taking pain medicine Sharp pain with every breath Because the cause is often unknown, there is no known way to prevent[nlm.nih.gov]

References

Article

  1. Gijsbers E, Knaap SFC. Clinical presentation and chiropractic treatment of Tietze syndrome: A 34-year-old female with left-sided chest pain. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2011;10(1):60-63.
  2. Volterrani L, Mazzei MA, Giordano N, Nuti R, Galeazzi M, Fioravanti A. Magnetic resonance imaging in Tietze's syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008 Sep-Oct;26(5):848-53.
  3. Fioravanti A, Tofi C, Volterrani L, Marcolongo R. Malignant lymphoma presenting as Tietze's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;47(3):229-230.
  4. Proulx AM, Zryd TW. Costochondritis: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2009;80(6):617-620.
  5. Kaplan T, Gunal N, Gulbahar G, et al. Painful Chest Wall Swellings: Tietze Syndrome or Chest Wall Tumor? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;64(3):239-244.

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 08:24