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Cough

Coughing


Presentation

  • We present the case of a 62-year-old renal transplant recipient presenting with typical and severe manifestations of whooping cough caused by B. pertussis. 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is a man aged 65 years presented with dry cough and right-sided abdominal pain. He started losartan a few weeks prior to the onset of cough and had been on rivaroxaban for prior deep venous thrombosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A 60-year-old black woman presented with nonproductive cough of 1-month duration. She had also experienced rapidly progressive dyspnea for 1 week and one bout of vomiting a day before presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We therefore aimed to determine cough-specific QoL and identify its influencing factors among children with ARIwC, at the time of presentation to a pediatric emergency department (ED), and over the following 4 weeks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Features of chronic myeloproliferative disease are often present, including splenomegaly and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Laryngeal Disorder
  • Individuals with laryngeal disorders, including those with tracheostomies, may not achieve sufficient laryngeal closure to generate the increased intrathoracic pressures necessary for an effective cough [ 38, 39 ].[dx.doi.org]
Heart Disease
  • There was no history of rheumatic heart disease. The height and duration of the P-wave was 4 mm and 0.16 seconds, respectively (p mitrale). Echocardiography showed enlarged left atrium (51 61 mm in diameter).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cough occurs in many of the acute infectious diseases, including the common cold, in the majority of chronic pulmonary diseases, and frequently in heart disease.[britannica.com]
  • Call 911 if you have: Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Hives or a swollen face or throat with difficulty swallowing Call your provider right away if a person with cough has any of the following: Heart disease, swelling in your legs, or a cough[medlineplus.gov]
  • These medicines can raise blood pressure , so people with hypertension , heart disease or other medical problems need to be careful with their use. Also, overuse of decongestants can lead to excessive dryness, which can trigger a dry cough.[webmd.com]

Workup

  • Further workup may include allergy testing for allergic rhinitis or sinus CT scan for sinusitis, as indicated.[emedicine.com]
  • Our panel of experts reviews his case and examines the workup of this patient with diverse symptoms and focal findings on chest radiograph and abdominal ultrasound. Copyright 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Focused workup revealed undiagnosed Sjogren's syndrome in 36%. Dry eyes, with or without SS, is under-recognized and should be added to diagnostic algorithms for unexplained cough.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Zataria multiflora is a popular plant for treatment of cough in Iranian traditional medicine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No adverse events were reported in the no‐treatment group.[doi.org]
  • The body of literature regarding specific treatments and the expected time frame of response is extensive, and the accuracy of the diagnosis is confirmed by the patient’s response to these treatments.[emedicine.com]
  • So far, there have been various treatments such as intubation surgery, mechanical insufflation-exsufflation or manual assistance provided by paramedic. But those treatments are mainly focusing on hospitalized patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Specific treatments may include: Antibiotics Corticosteroids Antiparasite drugs Dietary changes that make it easier for cats to pass hairballs Prognosis of coughing in cats The likelihood of treatments being successful vary with the diagnosis.[pethealthnetwork.com]
  • Don't delay if you see suspicious symptoms: Research shows that the earlier you get diagnosed and begin treatment (mainly prescription medications like bronchodilators), the better your prognosis. And stopping smoking is a must.[prevention.com]
  • What is the outlook (prognosis)? This depends on the underlying cause but is generally very good. People with smoking-related diseases who continue to smoke tend to be affected by coughing and breathlessness.[patient.info]
  • It’s not hard to understand the worry: The prognosis for lung cancer remains poor, with only 17 percent of people diagnosed with it surviving 5 years or more.[menshealth.com]
  • The prognosis for a cough will vary depending on the underlying cause. After the cause has been addressed, most acute coughs will get better within 2-3 weeks.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • Treatment of cough depends on the underlying etiology.[amboss.com]
  • In most patients, a specific etiologic agent will not be identified, and empiric therapy may be helpful. A high degree of suspicion for cough due to B pertussis infection will lead to earlier diagnosis, patient isolation, and antibiotic treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Unexplained cough was defined as chronic cough of unknown etiology despite algorithm-based evaluation and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] shown to be effective in patients with asthma-induced cough, they should be tried prior to oral corticosteroid therapy. [16] Nonallergic eosinophilic bronchitis Because its diagnosis is made easily, nonallergic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is the next etiology[emedicine.com]

Epidemiology

  • Materials and Methods: In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the relationship of call center employees between work and cough complaints and cough incidence with a questionnaire that consists of eleven questions and evaluates epidemiologic features,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Abstract Mechanisms which alter sensory neural activity, in particular those rendering nerves hyper-responsive have been implicated in the pathophysiology of common clinical syndromes including chronic cough, itch and pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms and exacerbation frequency appear poorly associated, suggesting an alternative pathophysiology. MART may be the preferred option in those with fewest symptoms. Copyright ERS 2017.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Overview References: [8] [9] [10] [11] Approach References: [8] [6] [12] [13] [14] [15] Diagnostics Miscellaneous Close history taking and physical examination are sufficient to diagnose the cause[amboss.com]
  • An excellent, concise review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough. Irwin RS, Curley FJ, French CL. Chronic cough.[web.archive.org]
  • A review of the literature and pathophysiology. Ann Intern Med. 1992, 117: 234-242.[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • Purpose: Cough on anesthetic emergence should be prevented considering its dangerous complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Smooth emergence or cough prevention is a clinically important concern in patients undergoing laryngomicroscopic surgery (LMS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Purpose After surgery, coughing is essential for preventing pneumonia and keeping the lungs clear. Many patients avoid coughing because it can be very painful; however, it is imperative that you cough enough to prevent lung complications.[verywell.com]
  • You don’t want to be cleaning it all out too frequently if it's shavings because the wet prevents dust from forming.[yourhorse.co.uk]
  • This could help to identify high-risk subjects to prevent extubation failure. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02847221 .). Copyright 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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