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Coxsackie Virus


Presentation

  • Interestingly, erythrocytes from neither mice nor rhesus macaques present CAR.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present significance of this case is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present case suggests that hyperCKemia-mediated disease onset is involved in some patients with NMO, and furthermore, it may be related to muscular destruction associated with viral infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As illustrated with the present case, serological testing may reveal an early, quick, and simple diagnosis in a case of rhabdomyolysis after a viral illness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: A neurosensory macular detachment was present in both patients on baseline examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cervical Lymphadenopathy
  • Initial observations included a prominent cervical lymphadenopathy, exudative pharyngitis and leucocytosis with atypical lymphocytosis. At the end of the 2nd week of illness the patient developed meningoencephalomyelitis and haemolytic anaemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lymphadenopathy
  • Initial observations included a prominent cervical lymphadenopathy, exudative pharyngitis and leucocytosis with atypical lymphocytosis. At the end of the 2nd week of illness the patient developed meningoencephalomyelitis and haemolytic anaemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Exudative Pharyngitis
  • Initial observations included a prominent cervical lymphadenopathy, exudative pharyngitis and leucocytosis with atypical lymphocytosis. At the end of the 2nd week of illness the patient developed meningoencephalomyelitis and haemolytic anaemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Retinal Pigmentation
  • A bull's eye pattern of macular retinal pigment epithelial disturbance persisted on color and near infrared reflectance images, despite good visual acuity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Visual Impairment
  • CAR-CNS KO mice showed no sign of visual impairment or swimming performance in the visible platform session ( Fig. 7 F ).[doi.org]
Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes
  • Delivery occurred vaginally approximately 24 hours later, following spontaneous rupture of membranes. At birth, both twins showed signs of sepsis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Placental Disorder
  • Massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) is an uncommon placental disorder, associated with significant fetal morbidity, mortality, and recurrence; its etiology is unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Anuria
  • This study reports a 39-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure who presented with fever, myalgia, anuria, edema, vomiting, diarrhea, exacerbation of renal function, elevation of serum CK, CK-MB, CK-MM, myoglobin, and liver function abnormality[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Polyuria
  • A 65-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital in June 2013 with a 6-day history of fever and fatigue, a 24-h history of thirst, and polyuria. His temperature was 37.8 C and he was alert.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cerebellar Ataxia
  • Neurological involvement associated with enterovirus 71 infection may include: Aseptic meningitis Encephalitis Encephalomyelitis Acute cerebellar ataxia Acute transverse myelitis Guillain-Barré syndrome Opsomyoclonus syndrome Benign intracranial hypertension[dermnetnz.org]
Encephalopathy
  • The autopsy showed mild, acute pericarditis and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Placenta examination showed MPFD involving 80% of the parenchyma. Molecular viral analysis and serotyping showed Coxsackie A16 virus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dizziness
  • A 7 year old boy had 2 episodes of mental dizziness and consciousness disturbance. Because of he presented a visus of 70 %, headaches and vomiting he was admitted to our hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

T Wave Abnormality
  • In conclusion, the natural history of Coxsackie virus heart disease is characterized by two possibilities: a complete recovery from a clinical point of view, in some cases with only minor T wave abnormalities, or evolution into a chronic disease (dilated[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
HLA-DR3
  • We wanted to compare the characteristics of T-cell immune response to CVB4 in children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children with and without HLA risk-associated haplotypes (HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8) for type 1 diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
HLA-DR4
  • We wanted to compare the characteristics of T-cell immune response to CVB4 in children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children with and without HLA risk-associated haplotypes (HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8) for type 1 diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Due to its crucial role for viral entry, CAR-downregulation may lead to novel approaches for treatment for viral myocarditis.[doi.org]
  • All four infants recovered, and no adverse effects of the treatment were noted. pleconaril needs to be comprehensively evaluated in this population.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.[immuno-oncologynews.com]
  • At the end of the treatment period, mean S.D.[academic.oup.com]
  • It most commonly causes sore throats, and symptoms will go away without treatment. However, in some cases Coxsackie virus may be more serious, and treatment with herbal remedies may be helpful in relieving symptoms and speeding recovery.[livestrong.com]

Prognosis

  • We concluded that coxsackie virus B 4 caused acute encephalitis with ophthalmological and mental symptoms and good prognosis. Coxsackie virus B 4 should be considered in patients with encephalitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our data indicate that long-term prognosis after acute Coxsackie virus myopericarditis is good in a majority of patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The visual prognosis in this variant is usually favorable. The multimodal imaging features that characterize this entity should be recognized to avoid confusion with other diseases that have a similar presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • : almost always self‑limiting Coxsackie B Myocarditis Pleurodynia Characteristics : highly contagious Clinical presentation Flu‑like symptoms Sudden thoracic and upper abdominal pain caused by irritation of the pleura and muscles Prognosis : self‑limiting[amboss.com]
  • The prognosis of HFMD is excellent, with the vast majority resolving spontaneously in 5-10 days.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Possible viral etiology of the polymyositis is suggested.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Coxsackie virus A 24 variant (CA24v) was found to be the etiological agent of an epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Vellore during the months of October and November in 1986.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our patient is the first reported case of FT1D associated with Coxsackie virus A2 infection and supports the etiological role of common viral infections in FT1D.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) is an uncommon placental disorder, associated with significant fetal morbidity, mortality, and recurrence; its etiology is unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, an etiological diagnosis was made in 21 out of 37 patients with clinical HFMD. This is the first report of a clustering outbreak of HFMD caused by CA10 in Japan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The differentiation between EV70 and the CA24 variant as the agent causing AHC is very important in epidemiology, especially as there is a high possibility in Japan of outbreaks caused by these two agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] etiological relationship between Kawasaki syndrome and Coxsackie viruses is only hypothetical; however, the eventual identification of ad hoc environmental triggers is advisable in front of children with Kawasaki syndrome, with the aim of optimizing epidemiological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although the role of environmental agents in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, these cellular immunological findings support the epidemiological evidence suggesting an inductive role for enteroviruses like Coxsackie B in the autoimmunity[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Worldwide distribution Occur in all age groups Highest incidence in infants and young children ( 10 years ) References: [1] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • Epidemiology and control of hand, foot and mouth disease in Singapore, 2001-2007. Ann Acad Med Singapore . 2009 Feb. 38(2):106-12. [Medline] . Bergman I, Painter MJ, Wald ER, et al.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • A Halapas, N Pissimissis, P Lembessis, I Rizos, AG Rigopoulos, DT Kremastinos and M Koutsilieris, Molecular diagnosis of the viral component in cardiomyopathies: pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic implications, Expert Opinion on Therapeutic[doi.org]
  • Pathophysiology Coxsackieviruses are transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and respiratory aerosols, although transmission via fomites is possible. The viruses initially replicate in the upper respiratory tract and the distal small bowel.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Many components of AD pathophysiology affect neurogenesis and synapse homeostasis and the onset of impaired cognition in AD is an enigma: histological analyses of brains from suspected early-stage AD patients have no striking differences compared with[doi.org]
  • Immunoprecipitation experiments combined with the in vivo pathophysiologic effects of CAR disruption indicate that CAR and connexin 45 are part of a previously unrecognized protein complex and that CAR also interacts with β-catenin and the PDZ domain–containing[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease." Dec. 22, 2017. . United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[medicinenet.com]
  • Arbidol not only prevented the cytopathic effect (CPE) of CVB(5), as demonstrated in an MTT colorimetric assay, when added during or after viral infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) from 2.66 to 6.62 microg/ml, but it also decreased[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Is it possible to prevent coxsackievirus infections? Prevention of coxsackievirus infections is difficult but possible.[rxlist.com]

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