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Cutaneous Atypical Mycobacterial Infection

Skin/tissue Atypical Myco Inf


Presentation

  • The book covers the entire spectrum of HIV-associated cutaneous diseases, and emphasizes how they present in immunocompromised patients.[books.google.de]
  • Abstract Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who present with skin disease pose the clinician with diagnostic challenges.[academic.oup.com]
  • Of 345 394 dermatological cases presented over the 10-year period, 33 (0.0096%) cases (19 male, 14 female) of atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infection were diagnosed.[hkmj.org]
  • Morphologically, the patients may present with abscesses, ulcers, draining sinus tracts, cellulitis or tender erythematous nodules.[ijdvl.com]
  • Fibrosis and granulation tissue are often present, and may be florid. Acid-fast stains may show the organisms. The highest-yield location to them out is within microabscesses or vacuoles.[dermpedia.org]
Pseudotumor
  • Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor of the brain: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 1999 ; 23 : 1294 –9. 38 Apel R. Lymph node pseudotumor. Am J Surg Pathol 1993 ; 17 : 91 –2. 39 British Thoracic Society.[academic.oup.com]
  • Pseudotumoral mycobacterial infection in the head and neck: A clinical study. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology , Vol. 99, Issue. 03, p. 277. CrossRef Google Scholar Stanley, Robert B. Fernandez, James A. and Peppard, Sean B. 1983.[cambridge.org]
Cutaneous Manifestation
  • This book aims to help dermatologists recognize the cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS, so that diagnosis can be made quickly and therapy begun as soon as possible.[books.google.de]
  • One cutaneous manifestation of M. tuberculosis infection is ‘lupus vulgaris’, the nomenclature suggesting that the two diseases have historically shared similarities in their dermatological manifestations.[academic.oup.com]
  • Cutaneous manifestations of tuberculosis.. Clin Exp Dermatol 32 : 461– – 466. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] Liao C. H., Lai C. C., Ding L. W., Hou S. M., Chiu H. C., Chang S. C., Hsueh P. R. .( 2007 ;).[jmmcr.microbiologyresearch.org]
  • Escalonilla P, Esteban J, Soriano M et al. (1998) Cutaneous manifestations of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin Exp Dermatol 23: 214–221 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 7.[link.springer.com]
Skin Ulcer
  • NTM infections can occur in well children and include lymphadenitis, skin ulcers, and rarely otomastoiditis and posttraumatic soft-tissue or bone infections.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • A 43-year-old Samoan man presented with a 3-month history of progressively worsening skin ulceration of his right leg and arm. This was on a background of an 8-year history of a chronic, unexplained right lower leg skin lesion.[nzma.org.nz]
Skin Plaque
  • Following the injury, a progressively expanding, pruritic, erythematous, keloid skin plaque with pustules gradually developed to involve the right lower limb.[nzma.org.nz]
Photosensitive Skin Rash
  • Case 1 A 68‐yr‐old widow with a 15‐yr history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) manifest as discoid lupus erythematosus, photosensitive skin rash, mouth ulcers, arthritis and sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy was admitted for management of a painless[academic.oup.com]

Treatment

  • Thirty-two patients received treatment and 31 responded. Twenty-six were treated with oral tetracycline group of antibiotics (minocycline, doxycycline, tetracycline). The duration of treatment ranged from 8 to 54 weeks (mean, 24 weeks).[hkmj.org]
  • The latest treatments are described, including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).[books.google.de]
  • The lack of consensus on treatment is a reflection of the paucity of data derived from clinical trials.[academic.oup.com]
  • No specific treatment guidelines exist but a multidrug regimen combined with surgical modalities is often used for therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Gummas form from non‐tender nodules that occur anywhere on the body and can become fluctuant and break down to form local sinuses; they have a poor prognosis in malnourished individuals [ 12 ].[academic.oup.com]
  • Prognosis The prognosis is good with proper medical and surgical treatment.[patient.info]
  • Thus, diagnosis of atypical mycobacteria is important now days, otherwise the infection could result in adverse prognosis. [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3][e-ijd.org]
  • Disseminated infections are uncommon but of poor prognosis [ 9 ]. The outcome of M. kansasii pulmonary infection is good if diagnosed and treated early.[bmcdermatol.biomedcentral.com]

Etiology

  • (Etiology) Atypical Mycobacterial Infections are caused by any species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Up to 13 distinct species of atypical mycobacteria are known to cause human infection.[dovemed.com]
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the most common etiology of systemic disease in humans. Other types of mycobacteria are discussed in different Medscape Drugs and Diseases articles (eg, Mycobacterium Fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae ).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the most common etiology of systemic disease in humans. Other types of mycobacteria are discussed in different eMedicine articles (eg, Mycobacterium Fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae).[dermaamin.com]
  • […] to mycobacterial infection was reported.[ 2 ] The affected patients were maternally related members of the family revealed to have defective IL-12 production, which is necessary to defend against mycobacteria.[ 2 ] Later that same year, the genetic etiology[mjhid.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological data, clinical features, histology, microbiological investigation, and treatment response. RESULT.[hkmj.org]
  • In a concise and user-friendly format, it offers authoritative coverage of epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathology, laboratory tests, management, and prevention for both common and rare conditions.[books.google.de]
  • Delineate distinguishing epidemiological and clinical features of nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections. List the general principles of how nontuberculous mycobacteria are identified in the laboratory.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Horsburgh CR Jr. (1996) Epidemiology of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Semin Respir Infect 11(4):244–251 PubMed Google Scholar 20.[link.springer.com]
  • Definition / general Skin disorders (ulcerations, abscesses, rheumatoid-like nodules, histiocytic reactions, panniculitis), most commonly due to M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. ulcerans Epidemiology Nontuberculous mycobacteria are nonpathogenetic; they inhabit[pathologyoutlines.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In conclusion, there are some clues about an association of skin infections with IgA-deficiency, although no clear pathophysiological link may be provided [ 11 – 13 ].[bmcdermatol.biomedcentral.com]
  • Mycobacterium peregrinum can result in skin infections. [2] Pathophysiology Infections with atypical mycobacteria usually occur in immunocompromised hosts due to host immunity and resistance factors.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Infections with atypical mycobacteria usually occur in immunocompromised hosts due to host immunity and resistance factors. Pulmonary infections can occur in patients with impaired ventilation systems.[dermaamin.com]

Prevention

  • In a concise and user-friendly format, it offers authoritative coverage of epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathology, laboratory tests, management, and prevention for both common and rare conditions.[books.google.de]
  • (November 6, 2017) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Features: Pneumonia can be prevented—vaccines can help. Available online at . Accessed on September 8, 2018. (November 10, 2017) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[labtestsonline.it]
  • Can People Prevent Atypical Mycobacterial Infections? Because mycobacteria are common in the environment, these infections are difficult to prevent, especially in people with weakened immune systems.[humanillnesses.com]
  • Specific prevention options for Atypical Mycobacterial Infections depend on the infecting species type.[dovemed.com]

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