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Cutaneous Schistosomiasis


Presentation

  • We now report two cases of cutaneous schistosomiasis presenting in Edinburgh with subtle, but remarkably similar, skin lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dermatologists should be aware of this presentation of schistosomiasis when evaluating patients with unusual skin lesions who have traveled in areas where schistosomiasis is endemic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case is described of a 34-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman who presented to our department and was diagnosed with a cutaneous schistosomiasis involvement of the perianal region.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Both patients presented with abdominal papular skin lesions, which on biopsy were found to contain granulomas with Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Twenty-five other cases were retrieved from the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The authors report a case of ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis in a 35 year-old female who presented clustered reddish macules and papules on the left buttock.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Asymptomatic
  • It is characterized by isolated or coalescent papules, erythematous, pruritic or asymptomatic, with zosteriform distribution, often located on the trunk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Usually, the lesions were asymptomatic. In few cases, however, severe clinical syndromes due to the parasite coexisted, such as transverse myelitis or the acute-toxemic form of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The disease is generally asymptomatic or gastrointestinal symptoms may predominate. Skin lesions related to the disease are rarely diagnosed, even in endemic areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The digestive signs are characterized by a rectal involvement, often asymptomatic, with granulomas found in the endoscopic examination.[ijcasereportsandimages.com]
Ascitic Fluid
  • This can lead to an enlarged spleen, ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity), and oesophageal varices (bleeding in the oesophagus). Collateral blood vessels can form, which redirect blood flow from the liver to the lungs and allow egg migration.[dermnetnz.org]
Hyperthermia
Skin Lesion
  • Ectopic cutaneous lesions usually affect the perineal area or trunk, and our patient is unusual in the localization of his skin lesions to the forehead.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a case of Schistosoma haematobium infection that appeared 3 years after exposure, with skin lesions as the sole manifestation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We now report two cases of cutaneous schistosomiasis presenting in Edinburgh with subtle, but remarkably similar, skin lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Both patients presented with abdominal papular skin lesions, which on biopsy were found to contain granulomas with Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Twenty-five other cases were retrieved from the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The first case was not suspected on clinical grounds, but was diagnosed only after terminally-spined ova of Schistosoma haematobium were found in histological sections of the skin lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pruritus
  • Bilharziasis (see also Schistosomiasis) 120.9 cutaneous 120.3 Clam diggers' itch 120.3 Dermatitis (allergic) (contact) (occupational) (venenata) 692.9 cercarial 120.3 schistosome 120.3 Infestation 134.9 Schistosoma 120.9 cercariae 120.3 Itch (see also Pruritus[healthprovidersdata.com]
  • Cutaneous schistosomiasis usually presents as crops of papular rashes with normal skin color on the trunk with or without pruritus and coexisting hematuria.[anmjournal.com]
  • Patients may develop edema, papulovesicles, and intense pruritus. Rare presentations have been reported on the upper extremities after cleaning fish tanks. There are no age or sex predilections.[visualdx.com]
  • Symptoms and symptoms Areas affected limited to exposed areas Initial Pruritus from Acute Urticaria l reaction Pruritus within 1 hour (minimal to intense) Later papular eruption occurs First Exposure Papule s within 5 to 13 days Subsequent Exposure (Sensitized[fpnotebook.com]
  • Symptoms and symptoms Areas affected limited to exposed areas Initial Pruritus from acute Urticaria l reaction Pruritus within 1 hour (minimal to intense) Later papular eruption occurs First Exposure Papule s within 5 to 13 days Subsequent Exposure (Sensitized[fpnotebook.com]
Excoriation
  • Papules (with or without excoriation) and S-shaped burrows are the classical lesions of scabies, which together with intense pruritus support the diagnosis of this condition.[news-medical.net]
  • Complications Secondary infection related to excoriation VII. Prevention Dry Skin immediately after bathing VIII.[fpnotebook.com]
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
  • Cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitic skin infection caused by hookworm larvae that usually infest cats, dogs and other animals.[unhs.co.uk]
Eczema
  • Moreover, individuals of all age groups that suffer from chronic crusted scabies may present with eczema, impetiginized plaques and hyperkeratosis masking the typical clinical sings of scabies.[news-medical.net]

Workup

Enlargement of the Liver
  • […] schis·to·so·mi·a·sis ja·pon·i·ca , Japanese schistosomiasis infection with Schistosoma japonicum , characterized by dysenteric symptoms, painful enlargement of the liver and spleen, dropsy, urticaria, and progressive anemia. schis·to·so·mi·a·sis ja·pon[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Enlargement of the Spleen
  • Symptoms include fever , muscle and joint aches, cough, diarrhoea, enlarged liver and spleen, and headache. Symptoms usually resolve without treatment over several weeks, but occasionally can be fatal.[dermnetnz.org]

Treatment

  • This article reviews the epidemiology, pathology, cutaneous manifestations, and treatment of these diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Magnetic hyperthermia is a new clinical therapy approved for treatment of tumor cells . Hyperthermia treatment can shrink tumors via the selective killing of cancer cells by damaging proteins and cellular structures.[medicalxpress.com]
  • Treatment with a course of oral praziquantel in a dose of 40mg/kg allowed resolution of the symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After treatment, the pruritic-type lesions observed during the status stage regress over a few months. Medical treatment is often insufficient for the genital and perineal lesions which often require surgical excision.[therapeutique-dermatologique.org]
  • What is the treatment for schistosomiasis? All individuals with schistosomiasis should receive treatment even if they are symptom -free.[dermnetnz.org]

Etiology

  • The importance of the recognition of these cutaneous lesions may rest on the opportunity to provide an etiological diagnosis in these difficult cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • McKee's Pathology of the Skin is the most complete, in-depth resource on dermatopathology, covering etiology, pathogenesis, disease mechanisms, and recent genetic, molecular, and basic science data. Drs. J.[books.google.com]
  • Swimmer's itch: etiology, impact, and risk factors in Europe . Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 65. CrossRef Google Scholar Lucie, Lichtenbergová and Petr, Horák 2012. Pathogenicity ofTrichobilharziaspp. for Vertebrates .[doi.org]
  • […] health practitioners appear unconcerned and the connection is not made between the “unhygienic practice” of wading in ponds and the concentration of snails or cercariae in the water, perhaps because there is no common laboratory test to confirm the etiology[scielosp.org]
  • CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Soldánová M, Selbach C, Kalbe M, Kostadinova A, Sures B (2013) Swimmer’s itch: etiology, impact, and risk factors in Europe. Trends Parasitol 29:65–74.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • This article reviews the epidemiology, pathology, cutaneous manifestations, and treatment of these diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This epidemiologic study reports incidence, severity, and risk factors of swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis).[doi.org]
  • Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiological study on group infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Changle City.[ufrgs.br]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Predominately fresh water exposure Distribution Northern United States Canada Episodic outbreaks related to snail maturation Bright, warm days of summer induce snail shedding Most outbreaks occur near shore Inflammatory reaction to parasitic[fpnotebook.com]
  • The pathophysiologic mechanism is not completely clarified. The symptoms of urinary S. haematobium is related to injuries caused by migration or embolization of eggs and granuloma formation indicating a defensive response of the host [11] [12] [13].[ijcasereportsandimages.com]

Prevention

  • Although it failed to exceed the group of PZQ, the results suggest that hyperthermia could be an effective prevention method. More information : YANG Huixia , et al.[medicalxpress.com]
  • In this study session, you will learn the causes, modes of transmission, clinical manifestations, prevention and control of four other vector-borne diseases of public health importance in Ethiopia.[open.edu]
  • How can schistosomiasis be prevented? There is no vaccine currently available for schistosomiasis. Travellers should avoid exposure to freshwater in endemic areas – avoid bathing in ponds and lakes. Bath water should be heated for 5 minutes at 65 C.[dermnetnz.org]
  • The identification of risk factors for the disease may help produce better preventive recommendations for the bathers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Minutes spent in the water, minutes in shallow water, location, time of day, preventive action, age, and gender were recorded for all residents and guests. Incidence of swimmer's itch was 6.8 episodes per 100 water-exposure days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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