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Cyanosis

Cyanoses


Presentation

  • Pediatricians often are unaware of other presenting symptoms of the disease. As a consequence, diagnosis is often delayed by months and even years. One of the presenting signs of adrenal insufficiency is hyperpigmentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This paper presents a case of a young patient with cyanosis and digital clubbing, until then an active, sporty person. He sought medical assistance due to the growing dyspnoea and the drop of effort tolerance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cyanosis is a physical finding that can occur at any age but presents a great challenge as the causes are multiple and varied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature presenting methemoglobinemia due to local anesthetic after transvenous cardiac device implantation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe the clinical course and results of molecular genetic analysis of a boy who presented after birth with severe cyanosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cyanosis
  • STUDIES ON CYANOSIS : II. SECONDARY CAUSES OF CYANOSIS. J. Exp. Med. 1919 Sep 01; 30 (3):271-93. [ PMC free article : PMC2126678 ] [ PubMed : 19868358 ] 4. Lundsgaard C. STUDIES ON CYANOSIS : I. PRIMARY CAUSES OF CYANOSIS. J. Exp.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Differential diagnosis Central cyanosis in neonates Transient cyanosis after delivery: central cyanosis should clear within a few minutes of the birth. Peripheral cyanosis clears within a few days.[patient.info]
  • This cyanosis can be significant and necessitate cardiac catheterization to determine etiology and attempt treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Eligible children were categorized by the presence of cyanosis, defined as an oxyhemoglobin concentration 85%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This hemoglobin variant, not previously described, was called Hb F Viseu and is the sixth Gγ-chain variant reported in association with neonatal cyanosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Heart Disease
  • RESULTS: Mitochondrial volume density (Vv) and numerical density (Nv) were significantly elevated in patients with cyanotic compared to acyanotic congenital heart disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With the introduction of universal screening for congenital heart disease, the finding of low oxygen saturation will uncover more neonates with hemoglobinopathies with low oxygen affinity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 3-year-old boy with asplenia-type heterotaxy syndrome and functionally single ventricle congenital heart disease who developed cyanosis early after the Fontan operation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Congenital heart disease; Cyanosis; Neonate[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After a full initial recovery, she was referred to a specialist grown-up congenital heart disease unit for further investigation. Cardiac MRI confirmed an ASD but showed that the cause of the cyanosis was anatomical in origin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperactivity
  • The cyanotic group was significantly more likely to have a developmental disorder (speech or motor delay) and subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • On further laboratory workup, lupus anticoagulant studies, including a mixing study, diluted Russell viper venom test, and hexagonal phase phospholipid neutralization test, were abnormal.[mdedge.com]
Hyponatremia
  • The diagnosis of Addison's disease is usually suspected in the presence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, or when adrenal crisis develops. Pediatricians often are unaware of other presenting symptoms of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Etiology for hypoxemia, treatment strategy, and patient outcomes were examined for each patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients with Hb Kansas do not require any specific treatment and the prognosis is good. In patients with unexplained cyanosis, we should thus consider Hb variants, including Hb Kansas and avoid unnecessary investigations and managements.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Cardiac surgical procedures/methods; electrodes, implanted/adverse effects; heart defects, congenital/surgery; postoperative complications; reoperation; transposition of great vessels/complications; treatment outcome[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.[webmd.com]
  • To report an unusual case of progressive cyanosis post Fontan operation due to porto-systemic venous shunt and the result of its treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Patients with Hb Kansas do not require any specific treatment and the prognosis is good. In patients with unexplained cyanosis, we should thus consider Hb variants, including Hb Kansas and avoid unnecessary investigations and managements.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 15/20]) and had no recurrent thrombosis (87% [13/15]) at follow-up. 5 Data also are emerging on the role of eculizumab, an anti-C5 antibody that inhibits the terminal complement cascade, as a therapy in difficult-to-treat or refractory CAPS. 6-8 The prognosis[mdedge.com]
  • Prognosis If the underlying condition (such as heart or lung disease) can be properly treated, the skin will return to its normal shade. Resources Books Carolson, Karen J., Stephanie A. Eisenstat, and Terra Ziporyn.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • THERAPY, COURSE, AND PROGNOSIS Toxic Methemoglobinemia Acute toxic methemoglobinemia may represent a serious medical emergency.[medtextfree.wordpress.com]
  • References: [1] [2] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Prognosis Without treatment, 95% of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome die within their first month of life![amboss.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology for hypoxemia, treatment strategy, and patient outcomes were examined for each patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The goal of this article is to help the reader understand the etiology and pathophysiology of cyanosis and to formulate an approach to its differential diagnosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The initial evaluation of these patients typically focuses on searching for a pulmonary etiology for arterial desaturation, which often leads to a negative work up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology Cyanosis, broadly speaking, is caused by disorders of deoxygenated hemoglobin and disorders of abnormal hemoglobin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • References: [18] [1] [1] [19] [2] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] Truncus arteriosus Etiology Failure of cardiac neural crest cell migration, leading to a lack of aorticopulmonary septum formation Associated with DiGeorge syndrome Clinical features Cyanosis[amboss.com]

Epidemiology

  • He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The goal of this article is to help the reader understand the etiology and pathophysiology of cyanosis and to formulate an approach to its differential diagnosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology Cyanosis typically occurs when the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin is very low [4] [5]. Oxygen in the blood is carried in two physical states.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Overview of cyanotic congenital heart defects General pathophysiological processes Heart defects may lead to the formation of connections between the right and the left heart (see “Pathophysiology” in acyanotic congenital heart defects ).[amboss.com]
  • The pathophysiology is not fully understood, but relates to decreased pulmonary blood flow. Most episodes are self limiting. Assessment Severe cyanosis/pallor (more than usual). Distress/hyperpnoea (not tachypnoea). Signs of dehydration.[rch.org.au]

Prevention

  • Hospital for Sick Children Health A-Z Search a complete list of child health articles expand_more View All Drug A-Z Search a list of articles about medications expand_more View All Learning Hubs Browse a complete list of content groups Healthy Living & Prevention[aboutkidshealth.ca]
  • It’s important to restore oxygen to body tissues as soon as possible in order to prevent complications. In many cases, blue lips or skin can be a sign of a life-threatening emergency.[healthline.com]
  • If cyanosis is limited to one area of the body, it could be caused by a blood clot or some type of blockage preventing blood from flowing to that part of the body.[study.com]
  • Abnormalities in the lungs can prevent oxygen from entering the blood, which can lead to cyanosis.[cincinnatichildrens.org]
  • The most common causes are: Lung disease: Any severe respiratory disease preventing adequate gas transfer and oxygenation of the blood COPD, pulmonary oedema, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute severe asthma Cardic disease Right to left cardiac shunt[fastbleep.com]

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