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Cyclosporine


Presentation

  • However, based on the present and previously reported cases, we believe that intensive immunosuppression can ameliorate CHP that occurs as a skin manifestation of SLE.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of serpiginous choroiditis refractory to steroids, immunosuppressants, and adalimumab. An 18-year-old woman presented with severe vision loss in both eyes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old male with pure white cell aplasia (PWCA), a rare complication of thymoma, who was successfully treated with cyclosporine A (CyA) and thymectomy. The patient presented with high fever and agranulocytosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of secukinumab for 16 weeks after direct switching from CyA in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present study, we investigated the ameliorative effect of curcumin upon chromosomal genotoxicity induced by cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant, using in vitro approaches.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Unable to Stand
Pleural Effusion
  • We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with fever, pleural effusion, massive ascites, severe edema, hepatosplenomegaly, elevation of serum creatinine level, proteinuria, and severe thrombocytopenia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gingival Hypertrophy
  • hypertrophy, although an association between the two profiles has not been observed and no relationship has been found with drug levels. 4 It is unknown what stimulates glandular growth, although it is considered that TGF-beta is involved.[revistanefrologia.com]
  • These findings may precede kidney functions alterations.13,14 Therefore, the safest method to evaluate renal risk is histological analysis.2 Other side effects are arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypertrichosis, gingival hypertrophy and hyperuricemia[bjn.org.br]
  • Other neurologic side effects include tremor, asthenia, and fatigue. 91 Psychiatric side effects have also been reported. 8 Patients with a history of seizures should be made aware that CSA can lower the seizure threshold. 8 Gingival hypertrophy, commonly[aad.org]
Hypertension
  • Furthermore, neither patient showed any adverse effects, such as hypertension, encephalopathy, or chronic nephrotoxicity, to the CyA treatment.In conclusion, these results suggest that CyA may be a safe and effective treatment for steroid-resistant severe[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Side effects were hypertension, elevated transaminases, cholesterol, and weight gain. Cyclosporine can be effective in morphea. The side effects were reversible.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • General Hypertension Cyclosporine is the active ingredient of Neoral . Hypertension is a common side effect of cyclosporine therapy which may persist.[web.archive.org]
  • […] and rarely severe hypertension may occur; incidence decreases over time; antihypertensive therapy may be required in recipients of kidney, liver, and heart allografts treated with cyclosporine; potassium-sparing diuretics should not be used to treat[reference.medscape.com]
Diastolic Hypertension
  • In placebo-controlled trials of rheumatoid arthritis patients, systolic hypertension (defined as an occurrence of two systolic blood pressure readings 140 mmHg) and diastolic hypertension (defined as two diastolic blood pressure readings 90 mmHg) occurred[web.archive.org]
Retinal Damage
  • A fundus examination revealed a foveal grayish-white lesion, and optical coherence tomography revealed outer retinal damage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Normal Hearing
  • The results of TEOAEs were similar between the groups and compatible with normal hearing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hirsutism
  • […] anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis Musculoskeletal: muscle and joint pain Respiratory: cough, dyspnea, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, bronchospasm Skin: acne, hirsutism[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Common side effects of cyclosporine include headache, dizziness, paresthesias, neuropathy, tremor, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, nephropathy, acne, hirsutism and gum hyperplasia.[livertox.nih.gov]
  • We did not observe hypertension or hirsutism in this cohort in the prescribed doses. Discussion The responses to cyclosporin in chronic ITP were observed from 40–55% in published studies of patients with small numbers 2–6.[haematologica.org]
  • Skin: acne, hirsutism. Other: anaphylaxis, gynecomastia, increased low-density lipoprotein levels, infections.[glowm.com]
  • Kidney, Liver, and Heart Transplantation The principal adverse reactions of cyclosporine therapy are renal dysfunction, tremor, hirsutism, hypertension, and gum hyperplasia.[web.archive.org]
Hypertrichosis
  • […] component of all immunosuppressive protocols to control transplant rejection for solid organ graft recipients Nephrotoxicity is major concern ( Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;4:481 ) Nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic Also causes gingival hyperplasia, hypertrichosis[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • As for the side effects, 73% (n 24) presented mild to moderate gingival hyperplasia and 79% (n 26) mild to moderate hypertrichosis.[bjn.org.br]
  • […] as lymphoma A new onset of diabetes mellitus, or worsening of pre-existing diabetes New or worsening dyslipidaemia A flare of gout Electrolyte disturbances such as abnormally high potassium (hyperkalaemia) or a magnesium deficiency (hypomagnesaemia) Hypertrichosis[dermnetnz.org]
  • This is especially useful in patients with a history of BCG immunization. 65 Other toxicities The most common cutaneous side effect of CSA is hypertrichosis, occurring in about 6% of patients, 8 usually a more significant issue in women with darker hair[aad.org]
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis The principal adverse reactions associated with the use of cyclosporine in rheumatoid arthritis are renal dysfunction (See WARNINGS), hypertension (See PRECAUTIONS), headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, and hirsutism/hypertrichosis[web.archive.org]
Anhidrosis
  • We report a case of acquired generalized anhidrosis successfully treated with cyclosporine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Limb Weakness
  • His bilateral thigh muscle atrophy showed improvement and lower limb weakness was obviously alleviated and he could stand and walk with the help of others 4 weeks later.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Secondary Amenorrhea
  • Besides weight loss and disturbances in body image, the patient developed alopecia, bradycardia, and persistent secondary amenorrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Erythroblast
  • A bone marrow biopsy showed the complete absence of megakaryocytes and erythroblasts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with fever, pleural effusion, massive ascites, severe edema, hepatosplenomegaly, elevation of serum creatinine level, proteinuria, and severe thrombocytopenia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated C2 levels in 38 patients (17 males, 5.2 2.9 years old) with SDNS at treatment initiation, at 6, 12 and 18 months during treatment, and at the time of kidney biopsy, 2-year after treatment initiation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We recently reported a high rate of relapsing nephrotic syndrome 2 years after discontinuation of cyclosporine treatment, suggesting that long-term treatment is necessary.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Four patients (1.2%), 2 before and the other 2 after the start of CyA treatment, developed coronary arterial lesions. CyA treatment is considered safe and well tolerated, and a promising option for patients with refractory KD.[doi.org]
  • BACKGROUND Enterocolitis is an immune-related adverse event associated with nivolumab treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A short course of cyclosporine was of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of 2 patients with DIHS. Short courses of cyclosporine in the acute care setting may be an alternative to longer courses of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of DIHS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Her clinical features were compatible with TAFRO syndrome proposed as a variant of multicentric Castleman's disease, that is occasionally associated with poor prognosis. Treatment with corticosteroid improved her symptoms partially.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Aggressive treatment is necessary for continuous high-range proteinuria in cases of pediatric Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) as the long-term prognosis is sometimes poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the efficacy of cyclosporine A depends on the degree of histopathological findings, and the relationship between long-term use and renal prognosis remains unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In 7 of the 9 steroid-resistant cases, the prognosis after corticosteroids treatment was described. In 5 of the 7 steroid-resistant cases, immunosuppressive treatments induced remission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] and reversible Thrombotic microangiopathy Resembles hemolytic uremic syndrome Occurs days to weeks after transplantation Glomeruli and vessels show thrombotic microangiopathy with platelet and fibrin thrombi and minimal inflammatory infiltrate Poor prognosis[pathologyoutlines.com]

Etiology

  • Lichen striatus is an acquired, benign, linear inflammatory dermatosis characterized by a sudden skin eruption along Blaschko's lines that usually is not associated with specific etiologic agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is a chronic, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology, characterized by multiple, monomorphic, symmetrical, reddish-brown papules over forehead, cheeks, and eyelids.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moritz, Neutropenia in dogs: etiology and prognostic factors, Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere, 44, 5, (307), (2016).[doi.org]
  • These generally have a viral etiology ( Grulich et al., 2007 ). Examples include the EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders ( LaCasce, 2006 ), and HPV-related cervical carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tao Zhang, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sudha Chaturvedi and Danilo Russo, Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome, PLOS ONE, 10, 10, (e0141316), (2015).[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007) . Ocul Surf 2007; 5 : 93–107. 2. Hossain P , Konstantopoulos A . Blepharitis: remains a diagnostic enigma.[nature.com]
  • Epidemiology In published studies, the incidence of cancer in renal transplant recipients ranges from 2.3–31% [ 3 ], although this estimate is limited by the focus of individual studies on specific populations and a lack of long-term follow-up, thus potentially[doi.org]
  • Although other tumors (12 skin cancers, 24 solid tumors of diverse types, and 1 multiple myeloma) were also reported in this survey, epidemiologic analyses did not support a relationship to cyclosporine other than for malignant lymphomas.[web.archive.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Nussenblatt and his collaborators delved into the most significant adverse effect of CsA, renal toxicity, and helped elucidate the pathophysiology of renal injury.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clearly, cyclosporine is associated with the pathophysiology of TH in children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Limited knowledge of its pathophysiology has made treatment of BFCP a considerable challenge and efficacy with current first line therapies, topical corticosteroids and antibiotics, is variable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Its pathophysiology is centered on tear hyperosmolarity, inflammation, and epithelial damage. Current management is suboptimal and includes artificial tear supplementation and short-term use of topical steroids in severe cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology remains unclear. Treatment with corticosteroids is considered the mainstay treatment because of its high efficacy. However, some patients have steroid-resistant CCS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • World English Dictionary ciclosporin or cyclosporin (ˌsaɪkləʊˈspɔːrɪn) — n a drug extracted from a fungus and used after organ transplantation to suppress the body's immune mechanisms, and so prevent rejection of an organ cyclosporin or cyclosporin —[web.archive.org]
  • Skin graft rejection in mice and graft-versus-host disease in mice and rats were considerably delayed by cycloporin A which also prevented the occurrence of paralysis in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cyclosporine was found to prevent organ graft rejection in a… Read More importance to heart transplant In heart transplant …transplants, and in the 1970s cyclosporine, a compound isolated from an earth fungus, was discovered to be a very effective drug[britannica.com]
  • Aerolized cyclosporine A (CsA) has been successfully used for prevention of organ rejection in lung transplant recipients. Various formulations of CsA are available and so far no direct comparison of their pharmacokinetics has been performed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] cyclosporin (also cyclosporin A , cyclosporine ) noun mass noun Medicine A drug with immunosuppressive properties used to prevent the rejection of grafts and transplants. A cyclic peptide, it is obtained from a fungus.[en.oxforddictionaries.com]

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