Cystitis glandularis is a term denoting the transformation of the transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder into columnar, presumably due to irritation by infectious agents, stones, neoplastic disorders or other processes. The eventual formation of cysts can lead to symptoms resembling a urinary tract infection - abdominal pain, hematuria, dysuria, nocturia, increased urinary frequency, etc. Its potential to proliferate into a malignant tumor is still a topic of discussion. A biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Cystitis glandularis is considered to be a proliferative lesion of the bladder mucosa that develops as a result of metaplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, transforming from transitional to simple columnar (with or without mucus production)     . Its pathogenesis is assumed to include chronic irritation and typical examples are infections of the urinary tract, calculi, obstruction, or tumors   . Because of its frequent propensity to protrude into the submucosa and the lamina propria (forming von Brunn's nests or buds that progress into mucin-secreting goblet cells, thus the term cystitis glandularis), several studies have examined the possible premalignant nature of this condition, but solid evidence are yet to be obtained   . In addition, pelvic lipomatosis is another clinical entity associated with the occurrence of this disease, presumably by contributing to long-term infection of the lower urinary tract and its obstruction . The exact prevalence rate remains largely undetermined, but isolated studies show that its presence is noted in approximately 2.4% of children who suffered from a urinary tract infection (UTI)  . Signs and symptoms like abdominal or flank pain, pelvic/perineal discomfort, increased urinary frequency and urgency, dysuria, nocturia, enuresis, hematuria, and vomiting (in rare cases) are complaints that have been reported in the literature    .
Entire Body System
All cases were identified as either typical or intestinal type CG by surgical pathology, as reviewed by two pathologists. Clinical information was obtained from the patients’ clinical charts. [doi.org]
18/38 (47%) cases reported by Jacobs et al.  In the literature, though the incidence of CGIT is reported to be less than CG usual type,  the relatively high incidence of CGIT in this and other studies  is probably due to the likelihood of pathologists [ijpmonline.org]
Soft Tissue Mass
Upon persistence of her complaints, urinary system ultrasonograms and abdominal tomograms were obtained when she was 17; these revealed a soft tissue mass extending from the posterior wall of the bladder into the bladder lumen. [thefreelibrary.com]
The diagnosis may be difficult to make without a thorough clinical and imaging investigation. Physicians must start the workup by obtaining a detailed patient history that will reveal the duration of symptoms, their onset, and determine if preexisting irritative factors exist (chronic infection, history of calculi in the urinary tract, catheterization, etc.). Some of the findings, such as perineal discomfort or abdominal pain, can be confirmed during the physical examination. To identify cystitis glandularis as the underlying cause of associated symptoms, however, imaging studies need to be employed. Cystoscopy is a useful tool to visualize the lesion, which shows a cobblestone pattern of the mucosa, or in some cases, a papillary or polypoid mass  . Because of its appearance, the provisional diagnosis of a malignant tumor is often made, thus a biopsy sample, regarded as the gold-standard of the diagnostic workup, with the subsequent pathological examination, is necessary to solidify clinical suspicion  . Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have also been described as potentially useful methods . Low signal intensity on both T1 and T2-weighted studies (with a high-intensity pattern in the center) are seen on MRI studies .
Squamous Metaplasia of the Bladder
The prevalence and significance of Brunn's nests, cystitis cystica and squamous metaplasia in normal bladders. J Urol 1979;122:317-21. [ PUBMED ] 2. Young RH, Elbe JN. Non neoplastic disorders of the urinary bladder. [ijpmonline.org]
Wiener DP, Koss LG, Sablay B, Freed SZ (1979) The prevalence and significance of Brunn's nests, cystitis cystica and squamous metaplasia in normal bladders. J Urol 122: 317-321. [clinmedjournals.org]
Treatment included whole bladder neodymium:YAG laser therapy, a technique not previously reported for this extent of disease. The etiology, diagnosis, treatment and malignant potential of cystitis glandularis are discussed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
She was given steroid treatment orally for 6 months and after this treatment; after treatment, her symptoms improved and the cystoscopy revealed a dramatic improvement in her condition. [thefreelibrary.com]
Antibiotic therapy treatment Antibiotic therapy is a kind of conservative treatment, which aims to eliminate chronic tract infections. [darlywhite.wordpress.com]
Factors 7-49 82 Genetic Predisposition and Syndromic Associations 8-1 83 Clinical Features and Natural History of Bladder Cancer 8-2 84 Morphologic Characteristics of Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma 8-10 85 Urothelial Carcinoma in Young Adults 8-14 86 Prognosis [books.google.de]
Treatment and prognosis Treatment consists of removing the source of irritation and surgical excision of the area of inflammation or cystectomy in rare severe cases. [radiopaedia.org]
Due to lack of this evidence and prognosis, we report a case of a 16-year-old male presenting with dysuria and a space occupying lesion in the bladder masquerading as a tumor mass. [medresearch.in]
The etiology, diagnosis, treatment and malignant potential of cystitis glandularis are discussed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Although etiology of cystitis glandularis is not fully known, most of the patients remain asymptomatic. [medresearch.in]
[…] columnar luminal cells are present Cystitis glandularis Cystitis cystica with luminal cuboidal or columnar lining cells Cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia (intestinal type) Cystitis glandularis with at least focal intestinal-type goblet cells ETIOLOGY [basicmedicalkey.com]
[…] ultimately confirmed by histopathologic examination.There are a lot of therapeutic methods,including surgery,drug infusion therapy,radiation therapy and biological therapy;most patients choose the comprehensive treatment of surgery drug perfusion,but etiological [en.cnki.com.cn]
Oravisto KJ (1975) Epidemiology of interstitial cystitis. Annales chirurgiae et gynaecologiae Fenniae 64(2):75–77 15. Jones CA, Nyberg L (1997) Epidemiology of interstitial cystitis. Urology 49(5ASuppl):2–9 16. [springermedizin.de]
Home Literature Reviews Epidemiology/Genetics Women With IC More Likely to Have Cystitis Glandularis, Chinese Study Suggests Zhang W, Yao YS, Lin ME, Xie WJ, Pan WW. [ichelp.org]
We report 4 cases of cystitis glandularis, we analyze the epidemiological, clinical, biological, pathological and therapeutic of this affection. In the last 5 years we treated four patients with cystitis glandularis. [webmedcentral.com]
Considerations 7-3 74 Histopathology and Diagnostic Criteria 7-4 75 Variants of Urothelial Carcinoma in Situ 7-9 76 Differential Diagnosis 7-31 77 Diagnostic and Predictive Biomarkers 7-34 78 Prognosis 7-37 79 Molecular Characteristics 7-40 References 7-42 81 Epidemiology [books.google.de]
Immunohistochemistry showed positive signals of cyclooxygenase-2 in the epithelium of pretreatment specimens, suggesting the pathophysiological role of cyclooxygenase-2 in cystitis glandularis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
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In a revision of 1000 biopsies, performed to investigate bladder cancer, the authors found EC in only 1,7%. 7 The etiology and pathophysiology of EC is not well understood. [ispub.com]
Eosinophilic cystitis: the relationship of allergy in the urinary tract to eosinophilic cystitis and the pathophysiology of eosinophilia. J Urol 1974; 112: Slama A, Khouni H, Sriha B, Brini K, Ben Sorba N, Taher Mosbah A. [docplayer.net]
Pathophysiology Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis Acute uncomplicated cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder that occurs in the absence of any structural or functional pathology. [wikidoc.org]
Building healthy eating habit and prevent cystitis glandular Eat more diuretic food, such as water melon, grape, pineapple, celery, pear, etc. [99eyao.com]
/ Matsuda, T. 2016 709 Editorial Comment to Novel strategy for cystitis glandularis: Oral treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Takahashi, S. 2016 710 First use of KORING to prevent parastomal hernia in robot-assisted ileal conduit formation Schmitz [tib.eu]
Stasis of urine flow allows entry of pathogens into the urinary tract and also hinders the natural preventive mechanism by which urine flushes away the pathogens and prevents colonisation in the urinary tract.     Recurrent/Chronic cystitis [wikidoc.org]
(NaturalNews) Slowly, studies within conventional medicine’s research facilities support what alternative and holistic practitioners have known for some time: Vitamin D3 helps prevent and cure disease, including cancer. [albertopansadoro.it]
But if you suspect your child has cystitis, it' s important to see the doctor to rule out any abnormalities of the urinary system to prevent kidney problems later on. [uzolasava.cf]
- YI X, LU H, WU Y, et al. Cystitis glandularis: A controversial premalignant lesion. Oncol Lett. 2014;8(4):1662-1664.
- Wong-You-Cheong JJ1, Woodward PJ, Manning MA, Davis CJ. From the archives of the AFIP: Inflammatory and nonneoplastic bladder masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2006;26(6):1847-1868.
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- Yuksel OH, Urkmez A, Erdogru T, Verit A. The role of steroid treatment in intractable cystitis glandularis: A case report and literature review. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015;9(5-6):E306-E309.
- Li A, Liu S, Lu H, et al. Clinical character of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction. Can Urol Assoc J. 2013;7(11-12):E708-E710.