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Cytomegalic Congenital Adrenal Hypoplasia

X-linked Congenital Adrenal Hypoplasia


Presentation

  • Features a downloadable Online Image Collection that you can use to enhance your presentations. Presents two brand-new chapters covering urinary cytology and fine needle aspiration to keep you up to date.[books.google.de]
  • The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only. The material is in no way intended to replace professional medical care by a qualified specialist and should not be used as a basis for diagnosis or treatment.[orpha.net]
  • Presentation in part depends on the rapidity of loss of adrenal function: Acute : presentation may be as a crisis precipitated by infection, surgery or trauma.[patient.info]
  • We present the clinical features of two sisters with intrauterine growth restriction, AHC, and dysmorphic features. Interesting histopathologic findings of one sister are also presented.[hub.hku.hk]
Inflammation
  • It begins with a look at normal anatomy and histology for each organ system...followed by discussions of the pathology of congenital anomalies, inflammations, non-neoplastic diseases and neoplasia.[books.google.de]
  • Ascending infections Placental inflammation, acute Hematogenous infections Fetomaternal listeriosis Pathology of the fetal membranes Amniotic band syndrome Meconium staining Candida infection of the placenta Pathology of the placenta Normal placenta[atlases.muni.cz]
  • Signs and symptoms may include: Visual impairment and blindness Pneumonia Diarrhea Ulcers in the digestive tract, possibly causing bleeding Hepatitis Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) Behavioral changes Seizures Coma. More[humandiseaseinsight.com]
  • Causes of pituitary insult that lead to secondary AI: Pituitary/brain trauma Pituitary irradiation Pituitary surgery Pituitary or hypothalamic tumor (including craniopharyngioma) Infection or inflammation/autoimmune disorders in pituitary Pituitary necrosis[clinicaladvisor.com]
Physician
  • Authoritative and insightful, Adrenal Disorders provides physicians and scientists with a comprehensive, state-of-the-art practical guide to the devastating diseases of the adrenals that are so often difficult to diagnose and treat.[books.google.de]
  • She has trained more than 100 young physician-scientists who have become chiefs of pediatric endocrinology and leaders in their field. Her research, clinical work and teaching have taken her around the world.[books.google.com]
  • An experimental type of drug therapy—a three-drug combination, with an androgen blocking agent (flutamide), an aromatase inhibitor (testolactone), and low dose hydrocortisone—is currently being studied by physicians at the National Institutes of Health[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Adrenal Gland Neoplasm
  • Other causes include tuberculosis (once the chief cause; now responsible for less than 10% of adult cases), bilateral adrenalectomy, hemorrhage into the adrenal gland, neoplasms, and infections (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, histoplasmosis, and[checkorphan.org]
Tall Stature
  • […] disrupting a conserved noncoding element upstream of the NR0B1 (DAX1) gene. ( 19773398 ) Skinningsrud B....Undlien D.E. 2009 4 Co-occurrence of X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia and autistic disorder. ( 19622699 ) Sieg K.G. 2009 5 Inappropriate tall[malacards.org]
Aspiration
  • Presents two brand-new chapters covering urinary cytology and fine needle aspiration to keep you up to date. Covers newly described entities and application of ancillary study for precise diagnosis.[books.google.de]
  • Transmission of cytomegalovirus infection may occur throughout life, chiefly via contact with infected secretion, Cytomegalovirus may also be transmitted perinatally, both by aspiration of cervicovaginal secretions in the birth canal and by breastfeeding[humandiseaseinsight.com]
  • Heath was probably due to aspiration but the functional disorders due to adrenal hypoplasia might have been a contributory cause.[dokumen.tips]
Hypertension
  • New discovered a new form of hypertension, Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess, which opened a new field of receptor biology. She was also the first to describe Dexamethasone-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism, another form of low-renin hypertension.[books.google.com]
  • The disorder can occur in virilizing, hypertensive and salt-wasting forms and symptoms may range from mild to severe.[checkorphan.org]
  • […] have normal fertility; females may be abnormal fertility Prevention genetic counseling may help parents with family history of disorder there is no preventive measure available at this time Complications shortened adult height, ambiguous genitalia, hypertension[medbullets.com]
  • Abiraterone (Zytiga) (see Abiraterone, [[Abiraterone]]) Pharmacology Inhibits CYP17A1 enzyme in testicles, adrenal glands, and prostatic cancer - decreases circulating testosterone levels Produces mineralocorticoid excess - side effects of hypokalemia/hypertension[mdnxs.com]
Short Arm
  • Although molecular genetic studies have so far failed to identify a deletion on the short arm of the X chromosome in our patient, this unique case of normal puberty in CCAH supports the suggestion 2,4 that a separate gene locus for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism[nature.com]

Workup

  • Review Topic QID: 105581 2 Begin a workup for 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency 3 Begin a workup for 21-hydroxylase deficiency 4 Begin a workup for 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency M2 Select Answer to see Preferred Response PREFERRED RESPONSE 5 Sorry, this[medbullets.com]

Treatment

  • The material is in no way intended to replace professional medical care by a qualified specialist and should not be used as a basis for diagnosis or treatment.[orpha.net]
  • Treatment The goal of treatment for CAH is to return the androgen levels to normal. This is usually accomplished through drug therapy, although surgery is an alternative. Lifelong treatment is required.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] effect), is the primary treatment and must continue throughout life.[checkorphan.org]
  • Exams and Tests Tests may include: Audiometry Bowel transit time Colon biopsy Genetic testing Treatment There is no specific treatment. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate.[nicklauschildrens.org]

Prognosis

  • , Prevention, and Complications Prognosis good to very good in most individuals if untreated, adrenal crisis can lead to death within 1-6 weeks males usually have normal fertility; females may be abnormal fertility Prevention genetic counseling may help[medbullets.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) Once hearing problems are corrected, most people with this syndrome should be able to lead a normal life. Those with rarer forms of the syndrome may have other complications.[nicklauschildrens.org]
  • Testing: * Home Fever Tests * Home Ear Infection Tests * Home Flu Tests * Adrenal Gland Health: Home Testing: * Kidney Health: Home Testing: * Home Microalbumin Tests (Kidney) * Home Urine Protein Tests (Kidney) * Home Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Tests Prognosis[checkorphan.org]
  • The prognosis for any patient with adrenal insufficiency will depend on the underlying cause. In those patients in whom the prognosis is not affected by the underlying pathology, replacement therapy should result in a return to health.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis CAH can be controlled and successfully treated in most patients as long as they remain on drug therapy.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Etiology

  • […] glands but normal architecture Macroscopy small for age adrenal glands decreased fetal zone in newborns Microscopy scattered cytomegalic cells decreased lipid content Differential diagnosis chronic exogenous glucocorticoids causes acquired hypoplasia Etiology[humpath.com]
  • Etiologies of secondary AI are summarized below. Basically, they are consequences of any insult at the level of hypothalamic-pituitary areas.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • […] concerning dermatopathology and pathology Atlas of fetal pathology Congenital malformations Physiological developement of an embryo and fetus, growth and changes of the external shape Congenital malformations and congenital anomalies Basic terminology Etiology[atlases.muni.cz]
  • Etiology Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal Hemorrhage/Infarction/Loss Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome (see Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome, [[Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome]]) Bilateral Adrenalectomy : after bilateral nephrectomy or in[mdnxs.com]
  • An autosomal recessive form of uncertain etiology (OMIM 240200) has also been identified.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • : found in 40% of primary adrenal insufficiency cases at initial presentation Hyponatremia (see Hyponatremia, [[Hyponatremia]]) Epidemiology : found in 80% of primary adrenal insufficiency cases at initial presentation Mechanism : primariliy caused by[mdnxs.com]
  • A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.[bioportfolio.com]
  • […] during embryogenesis - Rare endocrine disease - Rare genetic disease - Rare gynecologic or obstetric disease - Rare infertility - Rare urogenital disease Classification (ICD10): - Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities - Epidemiological[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • Epidemiology Frequency International Congenital adrenal hypoplasia is rare.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] process, and/or acute withdrawal of long-term corticosteroid therapy (defined as 3 months use of steroid) System(s) affected: endocrine/metabolic Synonym(s): adrenocortical insufficiency; corticoadrenal insufficiency; primary adrenocortical insufficiency Epidemiology[unboundmedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology and genetics of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. N Engl J Med 335: 1870, 2005. CrossRef Google Scholar 9. Andersson HC, Frentz J, Martinez JE, Tuck-Muller CM, Bellizaire J.[link.springer.com]
  • […] intrauterine growth retardation, metaphysial dysplasia, and genital abnormalities has been identified (ie, intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, genital anomalies [IMAGe] association; OMIM 300290). [12] Pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Predominant sex: females and children males (slight) No racial predilection Incidence 0.6/100,000 Prevalence 40 to 60 cases in 1 million population Etiology and Pathophysiology Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency ( 80% in United States) Infectious causes[unboundmedicine.com]
  • The pathophysiology of this is not yet clear. It involves reduction in the production of glucocorticoids as well as reduced effect.[patient.info]
  • Recent studies have demonstrated low circulating level of cortisol in preterm infants under stress, suggesting that the underlying pathophysiology of systemic hypotension may be associated with an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secondary[clinicaladvisor.com]

Prevention

  • , and Complications Prognosis good to very good in most individuals if untreated, adrenal crisis can lead to death within 1-6 weeks males usually have normal fertility; females may be abnormal fertility Prevention genetic counseling may help parents with[medbullets.com]
  • Prevention - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-Beta-hydroxylase deficiency Not supplied.[checkorphan.org]
  • This means that a number of fetuses are exposed to unnecessary steroid treatment in order to prevent the development of male-like genitals in female fetuses with CAH.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prevention There is no known way to prevent congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Your doctors may recommend genetic counseling if you're thinking of starting a family and you're at risk of having a child with CAH. Aug. 11, 2017[mayoclinic.org]
  • Chronic steroid use, then experiencing severe infection, trauma, or surgical procedures General Prevention Focus on prevention of complications. Anticipate adrenal crisis and treat before symptoms begin.[unboundmedicine.com]

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