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Dacryoadenitis


Presentation

  • The glands of Wolfring are present along the superior and inferior tarsal margins (5–10). Accessory lacrimal glands may also be present in the caruncle and the lateral forniceal areas.[entokey.com]
  • Determining whether a patient's presentation is acute or chronic can aid in determining etiology and choosing therapy. The presentation of dacryoadenitis may be quite variable. Acute cases usually present with more severe symptoms.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • Dacryoadenitis often lacks the inflammatory signs and may present with enlargement only, then it has to be distinguished from the neoplasm of the gland. Symptoms at presentation depend upon whether the disease process is acute or chronic.[aimu.us]
  • Average time to presentation was 2.8 days, and predisposing conditions were found in 45% of cases. Common presenting symptoms were eyelid swelling, pain, redness and diplopia, and common signs were ptosis, discharge and restriction of eye movements.[bjo.bmj.com]
  • This case highlights the consideration of insidious inflammatory disease when presented with acute dacryoadenitis.[aaopt.org]
Localized Pain
Wound Infection
  • More commonly, spread from an overlying preseptal cellulitis (scratch wound infections or hordeolum internum or externum) may occur in immunocompetent children and young adults.[entokey.com]
Soft Tissue Swelling
  • There also appeared to be a small amount of preseptal soft tissue swelling and fluid within the eyelids bilaterally. A systemic workup of the patient was initiated. CBC was normal.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
Aspiration
  • When present, calcifications with a density 2000 HU are particularly suggestive of aspergillosis. [8] Fine-needle aspiration is one of the procedures to be indicated, especially in patients too ill to undergo more definitive biopsy or when an orbitotomy[ijo.in]
Sore Throat
  • Spiking fever, evanescent rash, sore throat, myalgia, arthritis, and organomegaly are the typical clinical manifestations.[annals.org]
Photosensitivity
  • CASE REPORT A 24-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of bilateral eye pain, redness, and photosensitivity for two days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Clinical Evaluation When a diagnosis of acute dacryoadenitis is suspected, a focused workup of the condition should be initiated. A thorough history and physical is the essential first step.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • When a noninfectious etiology is suspected, a complete inflammatory workup is often indicated.[entokey.com]
  • However, if there are atypical features or if the swelling does not resolve with treatment, an additional workup is merited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Inflammatory causes should prompt a systemic workup.[healio.com]
Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Treatment

  • The ratio of progression in patients without any treatment was 10.2%, compared to a relapse rate of 2.7% in treated patients in 2017 (p 0.05). IgG4: immunoglobulin G4; Tx: treatment.[jrheum.org]
  • Classical systemic corticosteroids treatment for SS usually needs association of immunosuppressive drugs, including biological treatments as a recent new option to control the disease progression and inflammatory activity.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Treatment If the cause of dacryoadenitis is a viral condition such as mumps, rest and warm compresses may be enough. In other cases, the treatment depends on the disease that caused the condition.[nch.adam.com]
  • Treatment If the cause of dacryoadenitis is a viral condition such as mumps, simple rest and warm compresses may be all that is needed. For other causes, the treatment is specific to the causative disease.[sites.magellanhealth.com]
  • Treatment If the cause of dacryoadenitis is a viral condition such as mumps, rest and warm compresses may be enough. In other cases, the treatment depends on the disease that caused dacryoadenitis.[floridahealthfinder.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Acute dacryoadenitis: Prognosis is good. Acute dacryoadenitis is a self-limiting condition in most instances. Chronic dacryoadenitis: Prognosis is dependent on the management of the associated chronic systemic condition.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Prognosis [ edit ] Most patients will fully recover from dacryoadenitis. For conditions with more serious causes, such as sarcoidosis, the prognosis is that of the underlying condition.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • WHAT IS THE PROGNOSIS FOR DACRYOADENITIS? Most patients will be completely cured of dacryoadenitis. In acute cases, it often resolves without treatment.[medfriendly.com]
  • Expectations (prognosis) Most patients will fully recover from dacryoadenitis. For conditions with more serious causes, such as sarcoidosis, the prognosis is that of the underlying condition.[indiatoday.in]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) Most patients will fully recover from dacryoadenitis. For conditions with more serious causes, such as sarcoidosis, the prognosis is that of the underlying condition.[sites.magellanhealth.com]

Etiology

  • Medical Care The treatment of dacryoadenitis varies with onset and etiology.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Etiology and Classification Most inflammatory conditions of the lacrimal gland are either of viral etiology or of nonspecific etiology [ 3 ].[entokey.com]
  • It has also been suggested that dacryoadenitis from EBV responds well to systemic steroids. 21 Inflammatory etiologies should be managed based on the specific treatment for the etiology.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • Background Ascension of agent from conjunctiva into lacrimal glands Anatomy Two lobes: orbital and palpebral lobes Palpebral lobe visualized by everting eyes Uncommon, with 1/10,000 ophthalmic patients having dacryoadenitis Etiology Viral most common[wikem.org]
  • Etiology Lacrimal gland inflammation can be acute or chronic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological trends in malignant lacrimal gland tumors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;152(2):279-83. Ahmad SM, Esmaeli B, Williams M, et al.[journals.sfu.ca]
  • Epidemiology Frequency United States Dacryoadenitis is uncommon; therefore, data about its prevalence are sparse. One in 10,000 ophthalmic patients has dacryoadenitis according to one report.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • There has also been academic interest in the recently described immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related dacryoadenitis, which accounts for 23% to 35% of reports of previously idiopathic orbital inflammation. [4] [5] Epidemiology The prevalence of dacryoadenitis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology The pathophysiology is not understood completely. Yet, infectious dacryoadenitis is thought to be caused by ascension of an inciting agent from the conjunctiva through the lacrimal ductules into the lacrimal gland.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Similarly, pancreas with autoimmune pancreatitis usually shows normal exocrine pancreatic function irrespective of acinar atrophy. 4 This discrepancy has not been well documented until now, and further pathophysiological examinations are mandatory for[jamanetwork.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention [ edit ] Mumps can be prevented by immunization. Gonococcus, bacteria can be avoided by the use of condoms. Most other causes cannot be prevented.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Prevention Mumps can be prevented by getting vaccinated. You can avoid getting infected with gonococcus, the bacteria that cause gonorrhea, by using safe sex practices. Most other causes cannot be prevented.[health.ridgeviewmedical.org]
  • Prevention Mumps can be prevented by immunization. Infection with gonococcus, the bacteria causing gonorrhea, can be avoided by the use of safe sex practices. Most other causes cannot be prevented. References Karesh JW, On AV, Hirschbein MJ.[indiatoday.in]
  • Prevention Mumps can be prevented by getting vaccinated. You can avoid getting infected with gonococcus, the bacteria that cause gonorrhea, by using safe sex practices. Most other causes cannot be prevented. References Durand ML.[nch.adam.com]

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