Deep vein thrombosis is defined as the formation of a thrombus within a deep vein.
The following classical signs and symptoms appear in the lower limbs of around 50% of the patients with deep vein thrombi  .
Phlegmasia alba dolens (white leg): This condition is characterized by pain, pitting edema and blanching. There is no associated cyanosis. The condition occurs because of obliteration of the major deep venous channels with relative sparing of collateral veins. As a result, swelling occurs but there is no cyanosis.
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (Blue leg): The condition occurs when the thrombi involve the deep veins as well as the collateral channels. Thus all the venous outflow is blocked and there is massive fluid sequestration and significant edema. The affected limb in phlegmasia cerulea dolens is extremely painful, edematous and cyanotic and may be associated with arterial insufficiency and compartment syndrome. If untreated venous gangrene ensues which may even require amputation.
The investigations that are necessary to diagnose deep vein thrombosis include:
The treatment options for deep vein thrombosis include the following.
Many individuals who have a first episode of deep vein thrombosis will have a recurrent event. The risk of recurrence may be reduced by the use of compression stockings. Untreated cases of deep vein thrombosis can lead to pulmonary embolism which is one significant causes of death in these patients .
The various factors responsible for deep vein thrombosis include the following:
Deep vein thrombosis is more common in men than in women. The incidence is four times higher in the elderly over the age of 60 years.
In the United States, it is estimated that about 1 in 1,000 people have a deep vein thrombosis each year. On average, one in every 20 people develops deep vein thrombosis at least once in the course of his or her lifetime.
The pathophysiology of thrombus formation in deep vein thrombosis is explained by Virchow’s triad.
Deep vein thrombosis can be prevented by ensuring of a healthy life style, proper diet and regular exercise. Long periods of immobility must be avoided after major surgical procedures or on long travels.
People who are overweight must reduce their weight to prevent the risk of deep vein thrombosis. Regular checking of blood pressure with plenty of fluids intake and avoid smoking may also help prevent the risk of deep vein thrombosis.
Deep vein thrombosis is a condition in which there is formation of blood clots in the deep veins. These blood clots are known as thrombi and they can form in veins anywhere in the body; however, the large veins in legs and thighs are most frequently involved.
The condition is characterized by swelling, pain and tenderness, often in the legs. Risk factors for the formation of thrombi include immobility, hormone therapy and pregnancy. Deep vein thrombosis are most common in the elderly over 60 years of age; however, no age is immune.
A thrombus in a deep vein can break off and travel to lungs through bloodstream, leading to pulmonary embolism.
Deep vein thrombosis is a blood clot that usually forms in the deep veins of the lower leg and thigh. The patients usually develop swelling and pain of the leg and changes in the color of the overlying skin. Sitting for long periods when travelling can increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis. With proper medications and regular exercise, the disease has a good prognosis.