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Dehydration

Body Water Dehydration


Presentation

  • This report emphasizes sodium depletion as a common sign of CF presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present two cases in which a 10-month-old male infant and another 15-month-old female child presented with symptoms of sleeping with their eyes wide open (lagophthalmos) with features of gastroenteritis (GE) and dehydration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study was designed to explore the issue. Methods: Eligible 294 patients with acute ischemic stroke after thrombolysis were enrolled in the present study according to inclusion/exclusion criteria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Among 55,956 admitted patients, 13,457 (24%) presented with SD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The literature on the uncommon entity of breast-feeding hypernatremia and dehydration is reviewed, and management strategies are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Fever, presumably secondary to dehydration, is an useful early warning sign.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out on all children younger than 8 days of age with fever who presented to a single, tertiary care, PED from January 2009 to April 2014.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The person has a fever over 102 F (38.8 C). You notice symptoms of heatstroke (such as rapid pulse or rapid breathing). The person's condition does not improve or gets worse despite treatment.[nlm.nih.gov]
Weakness
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide recommendations to improve clinical decision-making based on the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used hydration biomarkers and clinical assessment methods.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Too weak to cry. Sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle (soft spot of skull). Increased heart rate, weak pulses, and rapid shallow breathing. Cool, mottled skin. No urine output (dry diapers). Too weak to suckle or drink fluids.[medicinenet.com]
  • Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. CONCLUSION: Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diarrhea lasting longer than two days Sudden weight loss Decreased urine production Excessive or lasting confusion Weakness Seek emergency help if you experience any of the following: A fever above 103 F.[fastmed.com]
  • Ricci, symptoms of dehydration include: – Mild Dehydration: Thirst, dry lips, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue, irritability, headache, darker urine, decreased urine output, muscle weakness – Moderate Dehydration: All of the signs of mild dehydration,[lecomhealth.com]
Malaise
  • The common symptoms of all patients were vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and malaise, although fever was seen mostly in the patients of rotavirus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypothermia
  • Too cold (hypothermia) or too hot (hyperthermia) and you will die. You need to conserve energy. Don't waste it by "doing" before "thinking." Water is vital for your body and mind to function properly. You need both working as good as possible.[equipped.com]
Constipation
  • Some examples are: Bumetanide Chlorothiazide ( Diuril ) Eplerenone ( Inspra ) Furosemide (Lasix) Torsemide ( Demadex ) Triamterene ( Dyrenium ) Laxatives If you're constipated, your doctor may suggest you get relief with medications called laxatives.[webmd.com]
  • Constipation - After food is eaten, it is broken down in the small intestine and the non-essential portion of the food gets converted to waste.[medicalwesthospital.org]
  • Studies suggest that dehydration may be associated with falls and fractures, heatstroke, heart disease, lung disorders, poor kidney health, bladder and colon cancer, urinary tract infections, constipation, dry mouth, cavities, decreased immune function[nutritionfacts.org]
  • Here are a few: Less constipation / less need for laxatives Fewer falls Reduced risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) Men may have reduced risk of bladder cancer Reduced risk of colorectal cancer You might also like: — 6 Ideas to Get Seniors to Drink[dailycaring.com]
  • So either high or low levels of water and/or electrolytes can result in diarrhea, constipation, cramping or hemorrhoids.[draxe.com]
Polydipsia
  • Her history was significant for psychogenic polydipsia, hyponatremia, and a renal concentrating defect. She presented with a 2-day history of altered mental status, ataxia, lethargy, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Meningitis was ruled out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cracked Lips
  • Other symptoms of dehydration include: Urinating less often than usual, or passing urine that looks dark yellow or brown Having a dry, sticky mouth or cracked lips Feeling tired Feeling dizzy or unsteady Sunken eyes (your eyes look “sunken” in your face[youngmenshealthsite.org]
  • Apply moisturizer to cracked lips and medication to mouth sores. This can make drinking and eating less painful. If you are able to drink, take in small amounts of fluid frequently instead of a large amount at one time.[cancer.net]
  • Symptoms of dehydration at any age include cracked lips, dry or sticky mouth, lethargy, and sunken eyes. A person who is dehydrated cries without shedding tears and does not urinate very often.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Hypotension
  • The cause of the initial false-positive result was determined to be dehydration with secondary hypotension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Systemic vascular disorders, leading to childhood stroke, include volume depletion or systemic hypotension and hypernatremic dehydration. We describe 3 cases of stroke following systemic vascular disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She had moderated to severe dehydration but no hypotension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients presenting with orthostatic hypotension and normal plasma sodium concentrations are frequently admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of dehydration.[doi.org]
  • ), and dizziness or fainting when standing up due to orthostatic hypotension.[rehydrate.org]
Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Patients presenting with orthostatic hypotension and normal plasma sodium concentrations are frequently admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of dehydration.[doi.org]
  • Cardiovascular findings include orthostatic hypotension, decreased cardiovascular pressure, and a rapid, weak pulse. Hard stools result if the patient's problem is not primarily watery diarrhea.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Tachycardia
  • Dehydration is marked by thirst, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, elevated plasma sodium levels, hyperosmolality, and, in severe instances, cellular disruption, delirium, falls, hyperthermia, medication toxicity, renal failure, or death. ; illustration[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Dry Skin
  • Use lotion often to soften dry skin. Try to get rid of the cause of dehydration, such as vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. (See these sections for information on these causes.) Apply lubricant to lips to avoid painful cracking.[cancer.org]
  • Elderly people, young children and some special cases - like people taking certain medications - need to be a little more careful.signs of dehydration in adults include being thirsty urinating less often than usual dark-colored urine dry skin feeling[icd9data.com]
  • Signs of dehydration in adults include Being thirsty Urinating less often than usual Dark-colored urine Dry skin Feeling tired Dizziness and fainting Signs of dehydration in babies and young children include a dry mouth and tongue, crying without tears[medlineplus.gov]
  • Dry Skin “A lot of people think that people who get dehydrated are really sweaty, but in fact, as you go through various stages of dehydration, you get very dry skin,” Dr. Higgins says, adding that skin may appear flushed as well.[everydayhealth.com]
Decreased Skin Turgor
  • These include: thirst, restless or irritable behaviour, decreased skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle (in infants), and absence of tears when crying vigorously.[rehydrate.org]
  • Patient care The patient is assessed for decreased skin turgor; dry, sticky mucous membranes; rough, dry tongue; weight loss; fever; restlessness; agitation; and weakness.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Oliguria
  • Signs of dehydration include poor skin turgor (not a reliable sign in the elderly), flushed dry skin, coated tongue, dry mucous membranes, oliguria, irritability, and confusion.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Confusion
  • There is any other change in the person's alertness (for example, confusion or seizures). The person has a fever over 102 F (38.8 C). You notice symptoms of heatstroke (such as rapid pulse or rapid breathing).[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Confusing this diagnosis highlights the growing and pernicious habit of using the terms dehydration and volume depletion interchangeably at the bedside when the two describe clearly different disturbances.[doi.org]
Lethargy
  • The major presenting complaints were fever (34.6%), poor feeding (42.8%), loose stools (40.8%) and lethargy (26.5%). The mean (SD) time needed for correction of hypernatremia was 38.6 (15.1) hours.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a 13-day-old exclusively breastfed neonate, admitted with a history of fever, poor feeding, lethargy and decreased urine output. The mother had history of lactation failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She presented with a 2-day history of altered mental status, ataxia, lethargy, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Meningitis was ruled out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three exclusively breastfed term neonates were admitted with lethargy, poor feeding, and oligoanuria. All three babies were severely dehydrated and had a weight loss ranging from 18% to 40%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The major signs and symptoms of infants with poor prognosis on admission were poor feeding (8 infants, 61.5%), seizure (3 infants, 23.1%), hyperthermia (1 infant, 7.7%), and lethargy (1 infant, 7.7%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sunken Fontanelle
  • Signs of Dehydration Mild Thirst Dry lips Slightly dry mouth membranes Moderate Very dry mouth membranes Sunken eyes Sunken fontanelle (soft spot) on infant’s head. Skin doesn’t bounce back quickly when lightly pinched and released.[quickcare.org]
  • fontanel, the soft spot on the head), limited, very dark urine, cramps, stiff and/or painful joints, severe irritability, severe headache, few or no tears when crying – Severe Dehydration: All of the signs of mild and moderate dehydration, plus: blue[lecomhealth.com]
  • Other signs include urine that smells strong and appears darker than the usual light yellow color, lethargy, decreased saliva (dry mouth, lips), no tears when crying, unusual irritability, sunken eyes and a sunken fontanel, the soft spot on your baby's[care.com]
  • These include: thirst, restless or irritable behaviour, decreased skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle (in infants), and absence of tears when crying vigorously.[rehydrate.org]
  • Sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle (soft spot of skull). Increased heart rate, weak pulses, and rapid shallow breathing. Cool, mottled skin. No urine output (dry diapers). Too weak to suckle or drink fluids.[medicinenet.com]
Altered Mental Status
  • She presented with a 2-day history of altered mental status, ataxia, lethargy, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Meningitis was ruled out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Skip to content learn bedside ultrasound, one week at a time This is a critically ill 59 year old diabetic male who presents with severe altered mental status and a fever of 103.4F.[ultrasoundoftheweek.com]
Neglect
  • In the absence of such findings, forensic concerns may focus sharply on parental or caretaker neglect as an underlying cause of death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The findings of the present study suggest that FDIP is effective and useful in the treatment of hemangiomas in the oral cavity. Laser treatment of these lesions prevents their recurrence and is well tolerated by patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Participants lost 3.00 0.31% (control) and 2.89 0.26% (treatment) of their BM from the pre- to dehydrated conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The reattachment of dental fragments is a conservative treatment and should be considered a primary treatment choice in the restoration of anterior tooth fractures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No consensus treatment guidelines exist, but most experts recommend a goal reduction rate of serum sodium levels of 0.5 mEq/L per hour with correction over 48 hours.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The primary endpoint was mortality and secondary endpoints included adverse events (safety) and treatment efficacy. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 1390 studies initially identified, 18 were assessed for eligibility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • It is unclear whether dehydration status before onset is related with prognosis of thrombolysed patients with acute ischemic stroke. If it is the case, quickly hydrating may improve the prognosis. The present study was designed to explore the issue.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The major signs and symptoms of infants with poor prognosis on admission were poor feeding (8 infants, 61.5%), seizure (3 infants, 23.1%), hyperthermia (1 infant, 7.7%), and lethargy (1 infant, 7.7%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) If you notice signs of dehydration and treat it quickly, you should recover completely.[mountsinai.org]
  • Contents [hide] 1 Medical causes of dehydration 2 Symptoms and prognosis 3 Treatment 4 Avoiding dehydration 5 Ethical concerns over death by dehydration 6 External links 7 See also 8 References Medical causes of dehydration In humans, dehydration can[rehydrate.org]
  • Prognosis The prognosis is excellent if the child is promptly and effectively treated. However, the child with severe dehydration and hypovolemic shock can have significant morbidity and mortality if treatment is delayed.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • We further describe epidemiologic and etiologic features of such deaths and discuss forensic difficulties encountered in their certification.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The usual etiology of hypernatremic dehydration in this age group is insufficient breast milk intake.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To rule out an excessively rapid correction of hypernatremia as the etiology of the problem, a myelin basic protein was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid that had been obtained on hospital day 1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patients were categorized into four groups according to etiological agents as rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and mixed infections for the comparison of symptoms, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, seasonal distribution, treatment requirements[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diarrheal illnesses are the most common etiologies. Worldwide, dehydration secondary to diarrheal illness is the leading cause of infant and child mortality.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • We further describe epidemiologic and etiologic features of such deaths and discuss forensic difficulties encountered in their certification.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Neurosciences, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, viale Pieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy. 6 Pediatric Cardiology Unit - Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, via Commenda 12, 20122, Milan, Italy. 7 Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Dehydration, particularly from gastroenteritis, is a common pediatric complaint in the ED.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In double heterozygosis for Hb S and C (SC disease) dehydration is the determining factor in disease pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of both dehydration and extracellular fluid volume depletion must be understood if these conditions are to be recognized and appropriately treated when they occur separately or together.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Variations in serum sodium reflect the composition of the fluids lost and have different pathophysiologic effects, as follows: Isonatremic (isotonic) dehydration occurs when the lost fluid is similar in sodium concentration to the blood.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Dehydration versus volume depletion The terms dehydration and volume depletion are commonly used interchangeably but they refer to different physiologic conditions resulting from different types of fluid loss. [1] Volume depletion denotes[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Abstract Dehydration and poor weight gain in breastfed infants are common but potentially preventable problems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Transitional care factors associated with potentially preventable conditions such as dehydration and failure to thrive (FTT) may play a significant role in readmission after pancreatectomy and have not been studied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration is prevented by daily neonatal weight monitoring. We aim to provide evidence-based support of this universally promoted weighing policy and to establish the most crucial days of weighing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As the incidence of breast-feeding associated hypernatremic dehydration in the developed countries is increasing, strategies of prevention are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Post-gastroenteritis hypernatremic dehydration is an important, potentially preventable, cause of stroke in Saudi children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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