Dravet Syndrome, or severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, is a severe and often drug-resistant condition characterized by the appearance of intractable generalized or unilateral seizures triggered by fever during the first year of life. Genetic mutations in subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels are established in the vast majority of patients and a definite diagnosis is made by their confirmation. Antiepileptics are the main therapeutic modality.
The clinical presentation of patients with DS is distinguished by the appearance of seizures during the first year of life, most commonly between 2 and 10 months . Initially, tonic-clonic seizures are preceded by increased body temperature, which is why these attacks are often misdiagnosed as febrile convulsions , but later on, seizures are polymorphic in nature. Both focal and generalized myoclonus, atypical absence seizures, complex partial seizures, but also "obtundation status" may be encountered in these patients . Clonic and unilateral nonfebrile convulsions that last for a prolonged period of time (status epilepticus may also occur) are typical findings as well . In addition to seizures, psychomotor development becomes affected from the second year of life, together with ataxia and clumsiness, while photosensitivity has been reported as well . In late childhood and adulthood, patients do not suffer from further neuropsychiatric deterioration, but cognitive functions remain below average throughout life .
Entire Body System
- Developmental Delay
He presented with intractable and recurrent convulsions, global developmental delay and microcephaly. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Developmental delays appear to different degrees in the majority of people with Dravet syndrome by the age of 2 and ataxia or abnormal gait is common. [disabled-world.com]
By age 2, developmental delay is often apparent, followed by cognitive plateauing and impairment. Impaired speech, ataxia, sleeping difficulties and sometimes pyramidal signs may also appear at this stage. [orpha.net]
- Chronic Infection
Patients also may experience movement and balance problems, growth or nutrition issues and, chronic infections. There are many other conditions that often co-occur with Dravet syndrome. [dravetsyndromenews.com]
Common issues associated with Dravet include prolonged seizures, frequent seizures, behavioral and developmental delays, movement and balance issues, orthopedic conditions, growth and nutrition issues, sleeping difficulties, chronic infections, disruptions [gofundme.com]
Some of the symptoms associated with Dravet Syndrome include: Developmental delays Behavioral delays Issues with balance and movement Orthopedic conditions Delayed speech development Growth impediments Nutritional issues Sleep disturbances Chronic infections [disability-benefits-help.org]
Conditions Associated With Dravet Syndrome Several other health conditions have been linked with Dravet syndrome, including: Chronic infection Delayed growth Delayed language and speech acquisition Delays in behavioral, cognitive and emotional development [citiva.com]
These conditions include: behavioral and developmental delays movement and balance issues orthopedic conditions delayed language and speech issues growth and nutrition issues sleeping difficulties chronic infections sensory integration disorders disruptions [dravet.eu]
- Developmental Disorder
KEYWORDS: Cognitive decline; Dravet syndrome; Language developmental disorders [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gene Condition AARS1 Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 29; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2N ABAT GABA-transaminase deficiency ACTL6B Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 76; Intellectual developmental disorder with severe speech [asperbio.com]
A ∼0.15% incidence of IGDs in patients with developmental delay has been reported in the large Deciphering Developmental Disorders study cohort.6 Phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class P (PIGP) has only recently been linked to human diseases [ng.neurology.org]
CDKL5/Stk9 kinase inactivation is associated with neuronal developmental disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14(24):3775–3786. pmid:16330482 View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 50. Friocourt G, Parnavelas JG. [journals.plos.org]
- Surgical Procedure
Interventional study (clinical trial) — studies new tests, treatments, drugs, surgical procedures or devices. [mayo.edu]
Surgical Care Some children who do not respond to medical therapy may be candidates for surgical treatment of their epilepsy. The most common procedure is focal cortical resection, in which an epileptic focus is identified and resected. [emedicine.medscape.com]
In cases of electrical status epilepticus during sleep with severe language impairment, a progressive and long-lasting improvement of the language function has been obtained applying the surgical procedure of multiple subpial transections of the region [hindawi.com]
The benefits and risks of the surgical procedure under consideration should be fully explained before informed consent is obtained.  1.11 Psychological interventions 1.11.1 Psychological interventions (relaxation, cognitive behaviour therapy, biofeedback [nice.org.uk]
Infantile epileptic encephalopathy, transient choreoathetotic movements, and hypersomnia due to a De Novo missense mutation in the SCN2A gene. Neuropediatrics. 2014;45(04):261-4. 8. [medscidiscovery.com]
Death is often due to pneumonia or other complications of a complex disability. Etiology EIEE may be the result of different etiologies. Many cases have been associated with structural brain abnormalities. [orpha.net]
Death is due to pneumonia or other complications in a number of cases. Ohtahara syndrome may convert into West syndrome within 2-6 months after birth, in about 75% of cases. Among these, 12% go on to develop the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. [news-medical.net]
Early death is a risk in these conditions with the most frequent causes being pneumonia or other respiratory compromise or Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). [ggc.org]
There are presently no FDA-approved drugs to treat Dravet syndrome, a rare disorder resulting in drug-resistant seizures which can increase risk for death and pulmonary complications, including aspiration pneumonia and resulting sepsis. 5,500 patients [forbes.com]
Death is often due to strain from seizure activity, pneumonia or other complications from motor disabilities. Prospects of recovering from OS after hemispherectomy surgery has been shown to be favorable, with patients experiencing "catch up" in development [en.wikipedia.org]
Although pathophysiological features are not yet completely understood, both photosensitivity and occipital seizures should be considered in the diagnostic evaluation in DS. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
In addition to seizures, psychomotor development becomes affected from the second year of life, together with ataxia and clumsiness, while photosensitivity has been reported as well. [symptoma.com]
Key words: Dravet syndrome (DS), severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, SCN1A, photosensitivity  Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite D.G.A.: Photosensitivity, visually sensitive seizures and epilepsies. [neurologia-dziecieca.pl]
Photosensitivity, high temperatures, intermittent photic stimulation and exercise may also provoke seizures. By age 2, developmental delay is often apparent, followed by cognitive plateauing and impairment. [orpha.net]
[…] generalized, clonic seizure. [orpha.net]
A distinguishing feature of DS is that seizures recur within weeks or months after the first episode and various seizure types may be encountered later on, including generalized or partial myoclonus, absence seizures and partial seizures. [symptoma.com]
Other seizure types including myoclonic and atypical absence seizures appear between the age of 1 and 4 years. Seizures are usually intractable and from the second year of life children demonstrate cognitive and behaviour impairments. [epilepsydiagnosis.org]
Early diagnosis is important to avoid anti-seizure medications that exacerbate seizures. KEYWORDS: Dravet syndrome; comorbidities; electroclinical features; prognosis [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Learn & Avoid Seizure Triggers Avoid seizure triggers whenever possible. [dravetfoundation.org]
- Febrile Seizures
Probands from those families even clinically diagnosed with atypical Dravet syndrome (DS), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), and focal epilepsy, had heterozygous p.Arg1596 His/Cys missense substitutions, c.4787G>T and c.4786C>T [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Most mutations are de novo but in 5-10% they are familial and often part of the generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures-plus (GEFS+; see this term) spectrum. [orpha.net]
Ataxia, a characteristic crouched gait and Parkinson's symptoms may develop in some individuals. It is likely that Dravet syndrome is underdiagnosed in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Head size and neurological examination are usually normal initially, over time ataxia and pyramidal signs may develop. Development is typically normal in the first year of life, with plateauing or regression in later years. [epilepsydiagnosis.org]
Impaired speech, ataxia, sleeping difficulties and sometimes pyramidal signs may also appear at this stage. Seizures can regress in adulthood but most patients have ongoing seizures that are refractory to medication. [orpha.net]
- Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure
The typical presentation is characterized by hemiclonic or generalized clonic seizures triggered by fever during the first year of life, followed by myoclonic, absence, focal and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
PURPOSE: we characterized multifocal myoclonus in Dravet syndrome (DS) that was never systematically typified before. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
One study reported an infant with benign neonatal sleep myoclonus who developed a pathologic form of myoclonus (ie, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy).  This association is likely incidental, and no clear evidence suggests that benign neonatal sleep myoclonus [emedicine.medscape.com]
[…] epilepsy of infancy, epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 6; EIEE6, Dravet syndrome, SMEI, epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 6, SME, epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, type 6, EIEE6, severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, severe myoclonus [monarchinitiative.org]
The diagnosis of DS may be difficult to attain in early infancy, as its clinical presentation is strikingly similar to febrile convulsions and other epileptic disorders. This may be even more difficult in the setting of a normal EEG and brain imaging studies, which is not uncommon in the initial stages of the disease. During disease progression and increased seizure frequency, however, EEG findings eventually reveal both focal and multifocal anomalies, including generalized spike-and-wave discharges and slowed background activity  . To confirm the diagnosis, genetic testing for SCN1A mutations may be performed, yielding positive results in approximately 80% of patients , but the diagnosis still rests on clinical criteria (recurrent seizures in infancy that are refractory to therapy with mild cognitive decline) .
Trevor Resnick, MD: Lennox-Gastaut [syndrome] is an epileptic encephalopathy—[it’s] very, very difficult to control the condition—that’s characterized by an abnormal pattern on the EEG [electroencephalogram] with a slow spike and slow wave pattern of [neurologylive.com]
EEGs were initially normal in 3 children, but by 2 years of age, all had developed multifocal discharges and diffuse background slowing. Four children had generalized spike and slow wave or polyspike and slow wave. [neurology.org]
spikes, frequently intermixed with diffuse slow spikes and waves. [intechopen.com]
- Generalized Spike-and-Slow-Waves
EEGs were initially normal in 3 children, but by 2 years of age, all had developed multifocal discharges and diffuse background slowing. Four children had generalized spike and slow wave or polyspike and slow wave. [neurology.org]
- EEG Suppression
EEGs showed various patterns, ranging from subtle burst-suppression with rhythm decrement to hypsarrhythmia, according to the age of infant submitted to the EEG. [ijponline.biomedcentral.com]
Significant challenges exist when it comes to treatment of patients suffering from DS, as the hallmark of this epileptic disorder is resistance to AEDs . Benzodiazepines and valproate, which are considered as first-line therapy for many seizures, are not effective, whereas phenobarbital, lamotrigine and carbamazepine are avoided because they can further aggravate existing seizures . Current therapeutic options include stripentol, one of the very few drugs that shows marked efficacy in reducing the burden of seizures and is often used in combination with valproate and clobazam  . Despite all available AEDs, seizures cannot be completely abolished in DS patients and the search for optimal therapy is ongoing.
Previous mortality rates from DS were estimated at 10-15%, with main causes of death being drowning, prolonged convulsions and sudden unexpected death, but due to improvement in care and overall management of epilepsy patients, recent studies estimate a 5% mortality rate . Unfortunately, long-term prognosis of DS patients is not good, as seizures are refractory and often resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but also because mental retardation and other neuropsychiatric complaints persist in early life and necessitate life-long monitoring and care of both patients and their families  .
Mutations of SCN1A gene that code for voltage-gated sodium channels in neural tissue is the principal mechanism of diseases in DS and about 80% of cases are confirmed by genetic testing . Specifically, the α-subunit of the sodium channel is coded by the gene located on chromosome 2 , and more than 95% of SCN1A mutations arising de novo . The remaining 5% have shown a familial component, in which case a strong suspicion of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), a variant of SMEI, is made . Other reports, however, suggest that familial cases represent as high as 25% of all DS patients . Consequently, other genetic factors presumably play a role in the pathogenesis on this condition, the most prominent candidate being mutations of GABA A receptor subunit mutations .
Incidence rates of 1 in 20,000-40,000 children suggest that DS is a disorder that is rarely encountered in clinical practice . It is estimated that 3-8% of all seizures during the first year of life may be attributed to DS, while gender predilection toward males was established across different studies (male-to-female ratio of 2:1)  . Factors that provoke an increase in body temperature, such as overt physical activity, infection, or sun exposure are known to induce seizure activity . Ethnic predilection is currently not established.
Under physiological circumstances, the voltage-gated sodium channels play an integral role in nerve conduction signaling and the action potential cascade. In the case of DS, the α subunit of the channel is altered by mutations in the gene responsible for its formation , SCN1A, most commonly through truncation mutations, but also deletions, splicing and missense mutations . Because of its abnormal activity, patients are predisposed to epileptic seizures that are refractory to therapy and present as a significant challenge for the physician.
Because seizures in DS patients are known to be induced by increased body temperature, especially during infancy, various effective strategies exist for reducing the risk of their appearance. Fever, when present, should be immediately managed through use of antipyretics, whereas the overall health of the child through adequate nutrition and vaccination should aid in minimizing the risk for infections . Cooling baths and avoidance of extensive sun exposure through use of protective clothing, such as hats and sunglasses (in the case of photosensitivity) are also recommended strategies . Despite the fact that numerous situations during the day may increase body temperature in children, including playing or running or any form of physical activity, prevention of dehydration and ensuring a cold environment as much as possible can be of significant help so that the affected individual is not deprived of a normal childhood.
Initially known as severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI), Dravet syndrome (DS) is a form of severe epilepsy and encephalopathy developing in the first year of life . This disorder stems from genetic mutations of SCN1A gene, which codes for voltage-gated sodium channels in the neural tissue . This mutation was identified in 67%-86% of patients across different studies , while mutations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors have also been discovered in a subset of patients . Epidemiology studies show that DS is a rare disorder, occurring in approximately 1 per 20,000-40,000 children, with a slight predilection toward male gender (2:1 male-to-female ratio) . However, it was established that DS is responsible for 3-7% of all seizures in the first year of life, suggesting that it is an important cause of epilepsy  . Familial occurrence has been described in up to 25% of cases and the clear association remains unknown, as almost 95% of SCN1A mutations arise de novo . Seizures begin during the first year of life and present as either generalized or unilateral convulsions of various types . The clinical presentation almost invariably involves tonic-clonic seizures triggered by fever (caused by infections, hot baths or some other activity that increased body temperature), which is why it is often misdiagnosed as febrile convulsions . In addition to seizures, progressive neurocognitive decline is evident in the majority of children, peaking in the second year of life . Electroencephalography (EEG), like in all epileptic disorders, is the initial diagnostic method of choice, but initial findings may be normal in DS. As seizures accumulate, however, multifocal spikes or spike and waves are encountered on EEG . Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important in excluding other causes of epilepsy (eg. tumors), but in the case of DS, it yields no effect, as a normal endocranial MRI is seen in virtually all patients . To confirm DS as the underlying cause of symptoms, clinical criteria such as retractable seizures in weeks or months aggravated by fever, without an obvious cause, should be supported by genetic testing, which is commercially available in some countries, including the United states . Confirmation of SCN1A mutations, however, may not occur in up to 20% of cases despite clinical findings that are highly suggestive of DS . The improvement in general care and introduction of antiepileptic drugs have reduced the mortality rate of DS and clonazepam, together with recently created topiramate and stiripentol have shown good long-term efficacy in managing children suffering from this type of epilepsy  . Unfortunately, seizures are often refractory and DS is resistant to virtually all antiepileptics in many patients. Moreover, the condition is life-long and continuous medical and emotional support is necessary to reduce the burden of the disease on both the patient and his/her family.
Dravet syndrome (DS), previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a form of epilepsy that develops during the first year of life as a result of genetic mutations involving sodium channels in the nervous system. Namely, sodium is one of the most important electrolytes involved in generation and transduction of nerve signaling and aberrations in one of the subunits of channels responsible for its utilization is the main cause of disease. The exact reason why these mutations occur is unknown, and approximately 95% of all mutations arise de novo (meaning that there is no previous familial component of the disease). DS is considered to be a rare condition, affecting 1 in 20,000-40,000 children throughout the world and a small but significant predilection toward males has been observed. DS is characterized by the appearance of one-sided or generalized seizures during the first year of life (most commonly between 2-10 months) that are provoked by increased body temperature, which is why it is often misdiagnosed as febrile convulsions or other types of epilepsy. A distinguishing feature of DS is that seizures recur within weeks or months after the first episode and various seizure types may be encountered later on, including generalized or partial myoclonus, absence seizures and partial seizures. In addition to epilepsy, cognitive development is slightly impaired in the first few years of life, whereas photosensitivity, clumsiness and loss of body movement control (known as ataxia) may be reported in these patients as well. To make the diagnosis, the physician must obtain a proper patient history including the onset and course of the disease, while electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful diagnostic tools. To confirm DS, however, genetic testing for SNC1A mutations may be performed, but not all patients are identified through genetic testing. Unfortunately, DS is highly resistant to antiepileptic therapy and drugs such as valproate and benzodiazepines pose little effect on patients. Moreover, lamotrigine, phenobarbital and carbamazepine, which are used for various types of seizures, are contraindicated as they may further aggravate seizures. Recent studies have shown that stripentol, in combination with valproate and clobazam, provides significant reduction of the disease burden in patients, but at this moment, seizures cannot be stopped by therapy. Avoidance of extensive sun exposure, prompt management of infections and use of drugs that reduce fever (antipyretics) are crucial preventive strategies for minimizing the risk of seizure occurrence. The overall mortality rates from this condition have been lowered from 10-15% to 5% through significant improvement in medical care, but the long-term prognosis of patients is not good, as seizures persist throughout life and most patients suffer from some degree of intellectual disability. Nevertheless, it is imperative to recognize this condition as a cause of epilepsy in infants and young children so that adequate care can be initiated as early as possible.
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