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Dextroamphetamine

Dexamphetamine


Presentation

  • We present a 15-year-old adolescent girl who was found to have a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after acute amphetamine/dextroamphetamine ingestion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PURPOSE: To present a novel approach to prevent miscarriage by treatment with sympathomimetic amines.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report 4 patients, 2 on methylphenidate and 2 on dextroamphetamine who presented with acral cyanosis, livedo reticularis, or Raynaud phenomenon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 44-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency room with worsening low back pain and loss of cutaneous sensation over the paraspinal muscles from T10 to S1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: In the present report, selected data from several controlled aviation studies were reviewed and combined to corroborate the efficacy of Dex as a fatigue countermeasure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • Furthermore, her edema improved resulting in a 27 pound weight loss and her chronic fatigue improved. Fibromyalgia can be effectively treated with an innocuous dose of dextroamphetamine sulfate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Outside our findings, there is no literature linking dextroamphetamine with rhabdomyolysis at nontoxic concentrations or with use of the supplement caffeine containing weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Side Effects Nausea , stomach upset, cramps , loss of appetite, diarrhea , dry mouth , headache , nervousness, dizziness , trouble sleeping , sweating , weight loss , irritability, and restlessness may occur.[webmd.com]
  • Weight loss. Circulation problems. Tremors. Fever. Nausea/vomiting. Rapid heartbeat. Dizziness. Difficulty thinking clearly. Manic behavior. Aggressive behavior. Hallucinations. Psychotic symptoms. Trouble breathing. Seizures.[drugabuse.com]
Fever
  • Fever. Nausea/vomiting. Rapid heartbeat. Dizziness. Difficulty thinking clearly. Manic behavior. Aggressive behavior. Hallucinations. Psychotic symptoms. Trouble breathing. Seizures.[drugabuse.com]
  • Get medical help right away if you develop some of the following symptoms: fast heartbeat, hallucinations , loss of coordination, severe dizziness, severe nausea / vomiting / diarrhea , twitching muscles, unexplained fever , unusual agitation/restlessness[webmd.com]
  • When people overdose on a prescription stimulant, they most commonly experience several different symptoms, including restlessness, tremors, overactive reflexes, rapid breathing, confusion, aggression, hallucinations, panic states, abnormally increased fever[drugabuse.gov]
  • Symptoms include agitation, hallucinations, coma or other changes in mental status, problems controlling your movements or muscle twitching, fast heartbeat, high or low blood pressure, sweating or fever, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle stiffness[zenzedi.com]
Pallor
  • Cardiovascular effects may include anginal pain, extrasystoles and other arrhythmias, flushing, headache, hypertension or hypotension, pallor, palpitations, tachycardia. Circulatory collapse and syncope may occur.[web.archive.org]
Pseudotumor
  • To determine if sympathomimetic amines may relieve migraine headache pain from pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) similar to its effect on helping other types of migraine headaches that were recalcitrant to other therapies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rectal Bleeding
  • We report the case of a 47-year-old narcoleptic man who had abdominal pain and rectal bleeding. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings supported the diagnosis of ischemic colitis associated with oral dextroamphetamine use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Poor Oral Hygiene
  • The causes include decreased salivation, corrosive substances in the smoke, and poor oral hygiene—called "meth mouth." When an amphetamine is suddenly stopped, symptoms vary.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Users have a high rate of severe tooth decay affecting multiple teeth; causes include decreased salivation, acidic combustion products, and poor oral hygiene.[merckmanuals.com]
Hypertension
  • Hypertension that does not respond to benzodiazepines is treated with nitrates (occasionally nitroprusside ) or other antihypertensives as needed, depending on the severity of the hypertension.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Do not use during or within 14 days following the administration of MAO inhibitors; hypertensive crises may result.[web.archive.org]
  • Hypertensive stroke is a well-recognised complication of amphetamine poisoning (see 9.4.3).[inchem.org]
  • […] prolonged periods of time may lead to drug dependence and must be avoided Misuse of dextroamphetamine may cause sudden death and serious cardiovascular adverse events Contraindications Hypersensitivity to drug or components Hyperthyroidism Glaucoma Hypertension[reference.medscape.com]
  • These medications have been associated with cerebral arteritis, renal necrotizing vasculitis, and systemic and pulmonary hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • Beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol 2 to 5 mg IV) may be used for severe ventricular arrhythmias or tachycardia.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The most frequent clinical effects observed for lisdexamfetamine, dextroamphetamine/amphetamine extended release, and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine immediate release were agitation (19.8%, 21.7%, and 25.1%, respectively) and tachycardia (19.2%, 22.8%,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chest pain, palpitation, hypertension, tachycardia, atrial and ventricular arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction can occur.[inchem.org]
  • Cardiovascular effects may include anginal pain, extrasystoles and other arrhythmias, flushing, headache, hypertension or hypotension, pallor, palpitations, tachycardia. Circulatory collapse and syncope may occur.[web.archive.org]
  • Adverse Reactions: Hypertension, tachycardia, CNS overstimulation, dry mouth, GI disorders, anorexia, urticaria. Note: Formerly known under the brand name Dextrostat. How Supplied: Contact supplier.[empr.com]
Cyanosis
  • We report 4 patients, 2 on methylphenidate and 2 on dextroamphetamine who presented with acral cyanosis, livedo reticularis, or Raynaud phenomenon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Frozen Shoulder
  • She lost 19 pounds in four months, her bladder urgency disappeared, and she had complete resolution of the idiopathic frozen shoulder problem.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Low Back Pain
  • A 44-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency room with worsening low back pain and loss of cutaneous sensation over the paraspinal muscles from T10 to S1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Back Pain
  • A 44-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency room with worsening low back pain and loss of cutaneous sensation over the paraspinal muscles from T10 to S1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Manic Behavior
  • Manic behavior. Aggressive behavior. Hallucinations. Psychotic symptoms. Trouble breathing. Seizures.[drugabuse.com]
Social Isolation
  • In addition, families who have children with ADHD often experience higher levels of parental stress and frustration, marital disruption, and social isolation ( Edwards 1995 ).[doi.org]
Hyperactivity
  • This study investigates how deficits in attention and impulse control are reflected in the social and cognitive play of a 4-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Plasma levels of d-amphetamine in hyperactive children. Psychopharmacology, 62, 133 - 140. Google Scholar Crossref Medline ISI Connor, D.F., & Steingard, R.J. ( 2004 ). New formulations of stimulants for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[doi.org]
  • Google Scholar Russell, VA, Sagvolden, T, Johansen, EB ( 2005 ) Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Funct 1: 9.[doi.org]
  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood‐onset disorder characterised by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.[doi.org]
  • Dextroamphetamine was approved by the FDA in 2001 for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 5, Label.[drugbank.ca]
Agitation
  • Agitation and hyperthermia must be treated aggressively. Discharge of non-admitted patients from the emergency department should only occur once physiological parameters and mental state have returned to normal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An overdose can cause extreme agitation, delirium, and a life-threatening heart attack or stroke. Urine tests can detect most amphetamines.[merckmanuals.com]
  • He was agitated on physical examination, with a temperature of 38.6 C, pulse of 150 beats per minute, and blood pressure of 130/85 mm Hg.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Agitation and convulsion can be treated with diazepam. If agitation is severe, then chlorpromazine may have specific advantages over other major tranquillisers ( Espelin & Done, 1968; Klawans, 1968).[inchem.org]
Tremor
  • There may be dryness of mouth, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, tremor, sweating, palpitations, increased or sometimes decreased blood pressure and altered libido.[web.archive.org]
  • Adverse reactions CNS: restlessness, tremor, insomnia, dizziness, headache, chills, overstimulation, dysphoria, euphoria. CV: tachycardia, palpitations, hypertension, arrhythmias.[glowm.com]
  • Common adverse reactions include palpitations, tremors, insomnia, stomach upset, dry mouth, decreased appetite, headache, dizziness, and anorexia.[www2.mallinckrodt.com]
  • Physical Effects of Dextroamphetamine: Physical effects of Dextroamphetamine will include: anorexia, hyperactivity, restlessness, dry mouth, headaches, dilated pupils, flushing, twitching, insomnia, palpitations, tremors, hypertension, blurred vision,[drugs.laws.com]
  • Palpitations, tremor, diaphoresis, and mydriasis may also occur during intoxication. Binges (perhaps over several days) lead to an exhaustion syndrome, involving intense fatigue and need for sleep after the stimulation phase.[merckmanuals.com]
Confusion
  • That D-amphetamine was critical to the resulting marked diminution in confusion, paranoia, and deficit in short term memory was confirmed by the occurrence of a relapse coincident with placebo administration as part of a double blind evaluation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most people using very high doses over several days or weeks become confused and psychotic because amphetamines can cause severe anxiety, paranoia, and a distorted sense of reality.[merckmanuals.com]
  • These are insomnia, restlessness, agitation, constipation, dizziness, confusion, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath etc.[differencebetween.net]
  • The brand name Dexedrine should not be confused with Dexatrim, an over-the-counter weightloss supplement which does not contain amphetamine. Notable users Allen Ginsberg was a frequent user of amphetamines, including Dexedrine.[web.archive.org]
  • […] medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: shortness of breath, chest/jaw/left arm pain, severe headache , fainting , fast/pounding/irregular heartbeat, seizures , weakness on one side of the body, slurred speech, confusion[webmd.com]
Fine Tremor

Workup

Lymphocytic Infiltrate
  • Two patients were found to have a positive ANA at low titers, 1 of whom had histopathologic evidence of stratum malgiphian necrosis with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration on skin biopsy. Two had positive antihistone antibodies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • For the studies in which the treatment and/or controlled groups were divided into subgroups because of the differences of concurrent treatment, the continuous data of the subgroups receiving more rigorous treatment, e.g., higher doses of drug treatment[doi.org]
  • The trial consisted of open treatment in a 6-week protocol, with indefinite follow-up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Differences in the response to dextroamphetamine were assessed between the three treatment groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Obesity and attention difficulties are known complications following surgical treatment for craniopharyngioma. Treatments to date have been largely disappointing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Motor scores improved during treatment in both groups (mean change, baseline to 3 months 29.5 /-16.6).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • 9.1.1 Ingestion 9.1.2 Inhalation 9.1.3 Skin exposure 9.1.4 Eye contact 9.1.5 Parenteral exposure 9.1.6 Other 9.2 Chronic poisoning 9.2.1 Ingestion 9.2.2 Inhalation 9.2.3 Skin exposure 9.2.4 Eye contact 9.2.5 Parenteral exposure 9.2.6 Other 9.3 Course, prognosis[inchem.org]
  • Since acute and chronic amphetamine psychoses may be different from each other in the respects of pathophysiology, clinical features, response to treatment, course of illness, and prognosis.[doi.org]
  • Mill J, Caspi A, Williams BS, Craig I, Taylor A, et al. (2006) Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from[doi.org]
  • Josephine Elia, Richard Kingsley, Christopher Lam, Toshinobu Takeda, Rachel de Berardinis, Seth Laracy, Jillan Sackett, Shih-Ching Tang, Martin Schardt, Kristina Nivus, Hakon Hakonarson and Sibel Algon, Pharmacological treatment and prognosis of ADHD,[doi.org]

Etiology

  • CONCLUSIONS: Sympathomimetic amines therapy may prove to be an effective therapy to prevent recurrent miscarriage especially in women who have failed despite progesterone therapy, and where no other etiologic factors have been determined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus, it will be important to delineate the role of TA receptors in the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia.[doi.org]
  • Amphetamine is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as well as for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as narcolepsy. 1 ADHD is a complex disorder associated with the substantial heterogeneity in etiology[drugbank.ca]
  • Special Diagnostic Considerations Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use of medical and special psychological, educational, and social resources.[rxlist.com]

Epidemiology

  • In the two recently-completed epidemiologic studies, data were analyzed from over 440,000 adults aged 25-64 years, including over 150,000 adults treated with medications for ADHD.[fda.gov]
  • Cowó, Marcelo Chen, Yu-Ting Lin, Chun-Po Hung, Yi-Hsien Chen, Jyh-Yuan Yang, Hung-Jen Tang, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen and Janaki Amin, Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012, PLOS ONE, 10, 6, (e0128266),[doi.org]
  • Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study with automated data from four health plans (Tennessee Medicaid, Washington State Medicaid, Kaiser Permanente California, and OptumInsight Epidemiology), with 1,200,438 children and young adults between[doi.org]
  • Epidemiology . 1997;8(3):275-2809115022 PubMed Google Scholar Crossref 27. Schneeweiss S. Sensitivity analysis and external adjustment for unmeasured confounders in epidemiologic database studies of therapeutics.[doi.org]
  • Sudden death reported in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious cardiac conditions receiving usual dosages of stimulants. 102 103 Epidemiologic data also suggest a possible association between use of stimulants[drugs.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible involvement of second-messenger pathways in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and the mechanism of action of mood stabilizers, we investigated the effects of dextroamphetamine (a model for mania) and the most widely[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the presence of a hypersensitive response is present in the brain reward system of depressed patients, which may reflect a hypofunctional state and may provide a novel pathophysiologic and therapeutic target for future[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The similarity of the response observed in normal children to that reported in children with "hyperactivity" or minimal brain dysfunction casts doubt on pathophysiological models of minimal brain dysfunction which assume that children with this syndrome[science.sciencemag.org]
  • The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of depression.[healio.com]
  • Impaired attention, genetics, and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. ‎[books.google.es]

Prevention

  • PURPOSE: To present a novel approach to prevent miscarriage by treatment with sympathomimetic amines.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • MK 801 prevented mating-induced cFos expression in NAc shell and core.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The effects of two drugs used to prevent symptoms of motion sickness in the operational environment were examined in this study of human performance as measured by computer-based tests of cognitive and psychomotor skills.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present study we used dextroamphetamine administered to humans as a model of mania, to determine whether the calcium antagonist diltiazem would prevent dextroamphetamine-induced changes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further studies are needed to determine if the improvements are stable and if earlier intervention can prevent the initial obesity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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