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Diabetic Complications

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus


Presentation

  • Yet, in the present study, it was determined that a higher BMI was positively correlated with DKD.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • As a result, the complications appear as the presenting symptoms that lead to the diagnosis. The characteristic retinopathy, for example, occasionally causes impairment of vision before glycosuria is found.[jamanetwork.com]
  • The data presented in those three studies suggested that intensive glycemic control had little or no protective effects on the progression of clinically present vascular complications of diabetes.[touchendocrinology.com]
  • Other forms of diabetic neuropathy may present as mononeuritis or autonomic neuropathy. Diabetic amyotrophy is muscle weakness due to neuropathy.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Patients with simple numbness can present with a painless foot ulceration, so it is important to realize that lack of symptoms does not rule out presence of neuropathy.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]
Weight Gain
  • By contrast, such aggressive lowering with agents that cause hypoglycemia and weight gain and/or that facilitate fluid retention in patients having diabetes and significant cardiovascular disease or risk for cardiovascular disease has a high likelihood[touchendocrinology.com]
  • Weight gain observed during optimized glycemic control might simply correspond to re‐expression of patients’ physiologically controlled bodyweight 64.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
Gangrene
  • Exclusion criteria were the following: type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar non‐ketotic comas, gangrene and amputation; other causes of renal disease, tumor, acute infection, patients in critical condition; and other causes of neuropathy[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • […] risks with these conditions. [17] Diabetic foot, often due to a combination of sensory neuropathy (numbness or insensitivity) and vascular damage, increases rates of skin ulcers ( diabetic foot ulcers ) and infection and, in serious cases, necrosis and gangrene[en.wikipedia.org]
Swelling
  • Diabetic retinopathy, growth of friable and poor-quality new blood vessels in the retina as well as macular edema (swelling of the macula ), which can lead to severe vision loss or blindness.[en.wikipedia.org]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • A large retrospective analysis of patients having diabetes and congestive heart failure showed that patients having an HbA 1C 1C 7.3 %. 8 Many intervention, as well as observational, studies have reported that the occurrence of one or more severe hypoglycemic[touchendocrinology.com]
Underweight
  • Recent studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for DPN 5, 6 ; nevertheless, the way underweight or normal weight affects DPN remains unclear.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
Heart Failure
  • A large retrospective analysis of patients having diabetes and congestive heart failure showed that patients having an HbA 1C 1C 7.3 %. 8 Many intervention, as well as observational, studies have reported that the occurrence of one or more severe hypoglycemic[touchendocrinology.com]
  • Furthermore, data on cardiovascular events were not available, such as atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and heart failure. Finally, the diagnosis of DPN was based on neurological symptoms and signs.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • […] vascular supply of the brain and the interaction of insulin with the brain itself. [10] [11] Diabetic cardiomyopathy, damage to the heart muscle, leading to impaired relaxation and filling of the heart with blood (diastolic dysfunction) and eventually heart[en.wikipedia.org]
Muscle Weakness
  • Diabetic amyotrophy is muscle weakness due to neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy, growth of friable and poor-quality new blood vessels in the retina as well as macular edema (swelling of the macula ), which can lead to severe vision loss or blindness.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Diabetic amyotrophy may be a manifestation of diabetic mononeuropathy and is characterized by severe pain and muscle weakness and atrophy, usually in large thigh muscles. 16 Several other forms of neuropathy may mimic the findings in diabetic sensory[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]
Mononeuropathy
  • A cross‐sectional study has shown that significantly more women with a BMI 2 have ulnar mononeuropathy at the elbow compared with women with a BMI 22.0 kg/m 2, suggesting that thin women are at increased risk for ulnar mononeuropathy at the elbow 36.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • […] neuropathy and mononeuropathy.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]

Workup

Glycosuria
  • The characteristic retinopathy, for example, occasionally causes impairment of vision before glycosuria is found.[jamanetwork.com]
Albuminuria
Dyslipidemia
  • Otherwise, it is well known that the risks associated with retinopathy include chronic hyperglycemia, nephropathy, hypertension and dyslipidemia 19.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • .: Helsinki Heart Study: primary-prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia: safety of treatment, changes in risk factors, and incidence of coronary heart disease.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]

Treatment

  • Abstract Although the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ) reflects chronic glycemic control, treatment-induced decreases in HbA 1C in patients who have established diabetes do not always predict beneficial clinical outcomes.[touchendocrinology.com]
  • Prompt, proper treatment usually results in full recovery, though death can result from inadequate or delayed treatment, or from complications (e.g., brain edema ). Ketoacidosis is much more common in type 1 diabetes than type 2.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] nephropathy benefit from treatment with antihypertensive drugs.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]
  • Hypertension was defined as SBP 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 90 mmHg and/or treatment with antihypertensive drugs 31.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]

Prognosis

  • Zaoui, et al, "Role of Metalloproteases and Inhibitors in the Occurrence and Prognosis of Diabetic Renal Lesions," Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 26 (Supplement 4), p. 25 (2000) Bonnefont-Rousselot D (2004).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • It is important to have a general understanding of the features of each to interpret eye examination reports and advise patients of disease progression and prognosis.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]

Epidemiology

  • The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study was a 10-year follow-up of the DCCT cohort after the study completed.[touchendocrinology.com]
  • "Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications". Physical Therapy. 88 (11): 1254–64. doi : 10.2522/ptj.20080020. PMC 3870323. PMID 18801858.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Am J Med 120 : S12 -S17, 2007 Beckman JA , Creager MA, Libby P: Diabetes and atherosclerosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology. 16 (4–2012): 299–308. Retrieved 13 February 2013. Lin, Elizabeth H.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Am J Med 120 : S12 -S17, 2007 Beckman JA , Creager MA, Libby P: Diabetes and atherosclerosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]

Prevention

  • "Emerging role of thiamine therapy for prevention and treatment of early-stage diabetic nephropathy". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 13 (7): 577–83. doi : 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01384.x. PMID 21342411.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • However, with comprehensive management, a large proportion of amputations related to diabetes can be prevented.[idf.org]
  • Initial treatment of diabetic nephropathy, as of other complications of diabetes, is prevention.[clinical.diabetesjournals.org]
  • Previous studies have reported that β‐blockers leading to an increase in nitric oxide levels might be useful in the prevention of DPN 59.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]

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