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Diarrhea

Diarrheas


Presentation

  • Herein we present a case of reactivated CMV proctitis in an immunocompetent patient, presenting as nosocomial diarrhea. Previously reported cases of reactivated CMV proctitis in immunocompetent patients are also reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A newborn cousin of the proband also presenting with intractable diarrhea was found to carry the same homozygous EPCAM variant, and clinical testing revealed intestinal tufting and loss of EPCAM staining.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 75-year-old woman, presenting to the emergency department with acute renal failure and electrolyte imbalance, reporting an history of recurrent episodes of dehydration and chronic diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • New pharmacological concepts on full agonists/antagonists, mixed-receptor activity and novel drug targets may streamline the present drug pipeline along with the adherence on new regulatory guidelines on outcome measures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fecal Incontinence
  • Fecal incontinence is a common disorder that can have a devastating effect on a person’s quality of life. Approximately 7% of the general population suffers from some degree of fecal incontinence.[web.archive.org]
  • These dimensions were sorted into four clusters using EFA - patient's perception of diarrhea, frequency of diarrhea, fecal incontinence and abdominal symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Such an approach improves the quality of life of patients with diarrhea and may mitigate associated symptoms, such as fecal incontinence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diabetic diarrhea occurs usually at night, is watery and painless, and can be associated with fecal incontinence. Bouts of diarrhea can be episodic, along with intermittently normal bowel habits or even alternating with periods of constipation.[diabetesforecast.org]
Bitot's Spots
  • Children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and/or Bitot's spots) at the start and end of an interval developed respiratory disease and diarrhea at twice (p less than 0.001) and three times (p less than 0.001) the rate, respectively, of children[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Excitement
  • Several exciting new compounds, some of which have been evaluated in humans, are currently under development. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Zinc - one of the more abundant elements on earth - has quickly emerged as an exciting new opportunity in the urgent quest to drastically reduce the number of global child deaths by the 2015 target for the Millennium Development Goals.[rehydrate.org]
  • Alternative therapies (including colesevelam and aluminium hydroxide) as well as dietary intervention may also have a role, and the promising results of the first proof‐of‐concept study of obeticholic acid suggest that its novel approach may have an exciting[doi.org]
  • Additionally, sesquiterpenes exert local anaesthetic activity by blocking the inward sodium current of excitable mammalian membranes. 21 Coffee charcoal contributes its high adsorptive capacity and astringent activity of chlorogenic acid to the spectrum[doi.org]

Workup

  • Our panel of experts reviews his case and examines the workup of this patient with diverse symptoms and focal findings on chest radiograph and abdominal ultrasound. Copyright 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] the presence of chronic or protracted diarrhea, as well as in cases in which a search for a cause is believed to be mandatory (eg, in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] or patients who are otherwise severely immunocompromised) See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Serology for celiac disease, preferably the tissue transglutaminase or TTG-IgA, should be performed as part of the workup for all patients suspected of having IBS associated with diarrhea or mixed subtype.[dx.doi.org]

Treatment

  • Angiogenesis is a proven clinical target for the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Due to higher prevalence of risk factors among the poor, disproportionately more disease cases and deaths would occur among the two lowest wealth quintiles for all three diseases when vaccines or treatment are unavailable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When more than 1 active treatment group was investigated, we selected the group first mentioned as the main treatment group.[doi.org]
  • We evaluated two high doses of Salovum [Antisecretory Factor] to treat diarrhea in young children and followed up for recurrence 6 weeks post treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although some probiotics have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of acute diarrhea due to rotavirus, their use in the treatment of diarrhea is yet to be recommended, even in developed countries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Most people recover completely from the symptoms of acute diarrhea within three to seven days.[drugs.com]
  • The distinction has implications not only for classification and epidemiologic studies but also from a practical standpoint, because protracted diarrhea often has different etiologies, poses different management problems, and has a different prognosis[emedicine.com]
  • Prognosis Many people with symptoms of acute diarrhoea will improve within 2-4 days: rotavirus diarrhoea usually lasts 3-8 days, norovirus around 2 days and infection with Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. 2-7 days.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Overall, nitazoxanide was effective at reducing the duration of diarrheal illness associated with multiple etiologies, including patients with no identified enteropathogen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The recovery of pure culture of C. laurentii from stool culture, and the patient's response to treatment with voriconazole support its potential etiological role.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: Summarize the etiology of 120 cases with diarrhea after renal transplantation from 2014 to 2017 in our hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Shared mucosal-associated microbiota in the duodenum and rectum appear to contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of whole intestine of IBS-D and to be potential therapeutic targets. 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, reactivated CMV proctitis is rarely reported as a causative etiology of nosocomial diarrhea, except in transplant patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Much epidemiologic data about these pathogens have been collected from community- and hospital-acquired settings, as well as from patients with traveler's or persistent diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Weekly epidemiological record. [PDF - 8 pages] 2008;83(47):421â “8. Top of Page[web.archive.org]
  • Weintraub A (2007) Enteroaggregative E. coli : epidemiology, virulence, and detection . J Med Microbiol 56 : 4–8 83.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a common disorder characterized by a complex pathophysiology hampering optimal targeted drug development.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Shared mucosal-associated microbiota in the duodenum and rectum appear to contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of whole intestine of IBS-D and to be potential therapeutic targets. 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 16. Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Department of Analytical Pathophysiology, Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University. 2 Division of Cancer Pathophysiology, National Cancer Center Research Institute. 3 Department of Pharmacology,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • RCTs of prevention as well as treatment of AAD were included.[doi.org]
  • KEYWORDS: diagnostics; diarrhea; infectious; management; prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Here we present a practical guide that informs healthcare professionals and patients on the availability of probiotic products with a proven efficacy for the prevention of AAD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On this web site Clear, practical advice on preventing and treating diarrhoeal diseases.[web.archive.org]
  • Learn how simple and inexpensive interventions to prevent and treat diarrhea can save the lives of children around the world. Stopping Diarrhea Most diarrheal deaths are preventable using simple, low-cost interventions.[cdc.gov]

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