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Dicrocoelium Dendriticum


Presentation

  • The present report describes a patient with active Crohn's disease whose stool contained D dendriticum eggs. A brief discussion of the medical literature is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a rare case of dicrocoeliasis in a 55-year-old woman who presented with eosinophilia and elevated bilirubin. Therapy with albendazole eradicated the parasite and normalized blood parameters.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a twelve-year-old girl with non-hemolytic gallbladder stone and discuss the clinical features and differential diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum (DD) invasion that causes and/or mimics cholelithiasis in children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present reported a patient suffered from recurrent acute chole-cystitis with chronic urinary schistosomiasis whose Kato stool examination showed Dicroceolium dendriticum eggs. He was successfully treated with Mirazid.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All patients presented with immune allergic-like symptoms of the eyes, ears, nose, or throat. All collected parasites were identified as Dicrocoelium dendriticum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Physician
  • Physicians should keep in mind parasitic diseases such as the rarely encountered dicrocoeliosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It becomes important to screen underweight children for helminthiasis, particularly HIV/AIDS patients whose HIV treatment plan might be of priority to the physician.[ajol.info]
Inflammation
  • In heavy infections, bile ducts and the biliary epithelium may become enlarged with the generation of fibrous tissues around the ducts leading to hepatomegaly or inflammation of the liver (cirrhosis).[ajol.info]
  • However, in heavier infections, bile ducts and the biliary epithelium may become enlarged in addition to the generation of fibrous tissue surrounding the ducts, and as a result, causing an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) or inflammation of the liver (cirrhosis[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms include biliary colic, digestive disturbances, infections, inflammation of the bile ducts and fibrosis. In some cases the liver can become enlarged. Heavy infections render livers unsellable.[animaldiversity.org]
Hunting
  • However, 41 of 59 wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sampled during the 2003 and 2004 hunting seasons from this region were infected, with 7 hosts containing 1,000 worms. Prevalence and mean intensity were similarly high in sympatric beef cattle and mule deer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypothermia
  • Infections in alpacas and llamas are associated with an acute decline in condition, recumbency, hypothermia, and anemia. Liver enzyme values tend to be within normal limits.[merckvetmanual.com]
Abdominal Tenderness
  • The patient had abdominal tenderness to palpation in the right upper quadrant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chronic Watery Diarrhea
  • In conclusion, dicroceliasis can be associated with chronic watery diarrhea and right upper abdominal pain, and stool samples of the patients must be examined for intestinal parasitic diseases in health centers.[doi.org]
Acute Diarrhea
  • In contrast to acute diarrhea, most of the causes of chronic diarrhea are noninfectious.[doi.org]
Constipation
  • Accordingly, symptoms such as irritation in bile ducts, infectious hepatitis, a swollen abdomen, enlarged and painful liver, diarrhea, constipation, eosinophilia, and anemia are the symptoms also seen in fascioliosis. 1 – 3 The prevalence of D. dendriticum[doi.org]
Biliary Colic
  • The disease could lead to biliary colic, digestive disturbances that include bloating and diarrhea.[ajol.info]
  • These symptoms can include biliary colic and general digestive disturbances, including bloating and diarrhea.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms include biliary colic, digestive disturbances, infections, inflammation of the bile ducts and fibrosis. In some cases the liver can become enlarged. Heavy infections render livers unsellable.[animaldiversity.org]
Urticaria
  • Acute urticaria associated with Dicrocoelium dendriticum infestation. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:97–8. [PubMed] 18. Ondriska F, Sobota K, Janosek J, Joklová E. A rare case of human autochthonous dicroceliasis in Czechoslovakia.[annsaudimed.net]
  • In one unique case, an infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum was associated with a skin rash urticaria. Due to the highly specific nature of this parasite’s life cycle, human infections are generally rare.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • "Acute urticaria associated with Dicrocoelium dendriticum infestation". Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008 ; 26 :97-8. 18. Ondriska F, Sobota K, Janosek J, Joklová E. "A rare case of human autochthonous dicroceliasis in Czechoslovakia".[doi.org]

Workup

Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • In this study, the effects of D. dendriticum on cell proliferation, cell death mechanisms and oxidative stress induction were evaluated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (HepG2 and HuH7).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Effective anthelmintic treatments are available, but most must be administered at dosages higher than those recommended for F hepatica.[merckvetmanual.com]
  • Following the treatment, stool examinations were performed by using the wet smear and flotation methods, for three consecutive days.[doi.org]
  • Oral dosing of the ewe lambs with 15mg/kg albendazole only achieved a 79.2% reduction in Dicrocoelium dendriticum egg count, 21day post treatment.[research.ed.ac.uk]
  • Albendazole treatment was instituted and after three months, body weight improved to 10.5kg.[ajol.info]
  • Because human infections with Dicrocoelium dendriticum are so rare, there are multiple suggestions for treatment. The standard treatment is an anthelmintic such as Praziquantel, Triclabendazole, or Mirazid.[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • More recently, a cross-sectional survey of young children in Kumasi conducted to evaluate the etiology of anemia detected 2.0% of 197 children with D. dendriticum in stool samples [ 2 ].[academic.oup.com]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patrik Ellström * Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar; Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .[doi.org]
  • […] animals 22min OIE rabies international standards: towards ‘Zero by 30’ 18min The OIE Rabies Vaccine Bank: a possible tool for outbreak response 1min First occurrence of liver fluke due to Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica in Palestine 8min Epidemiological[oiebulletin.com]
  • 22min OIE rabies international standards: towards ‘Zero by 30’ 21min Global Strategic Plan to end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030 1min First occurrence of liver fluke due to Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica in Palestine 8min Epidemiological[oiebulletin.com]
  • There is a need to investigate the epidemiology of dicrocoeliasis in Kyrgyzstan, placing emphasis on the distinction between true and pseudo-infections.[researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Prevention. There is no special preventive measure. Comments. Differential diagnosis between Eurytrema pancreaticum is needed. Mee-Sun, Ock Dicrocoeliid egg from human. Woon-Mok Sohn Adult worm of Dicrocoelium dendriticum .[atlas.or.kr]
  • Current public health prevention strategies have involved the condemnation of contaminated livers so as to eliminate any possibility for food-borne infection.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • December 13, 2018 Kris Carter, DVM, MPVM, DACVPM, Epidemiologist, Center for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Matthew E.[merckvetmanual.com]
  • Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 73/ Issue 1: 93-96. Accessed February 13, 2013 at . Carney, W. 1969. Behavioral and morphological changes in carpenter ants harboring dicrocoeliid metacercariae.[animaldiversity.org]
  • We also thank the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for permission to reproduce the diagram of the D. dendriticum life cycle available at .[nature.com]

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