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Dieldrin Poisoning

Poisoning by Dieldrin


Presentation

  • It is the intent of this book to present factual and balanced overviews and summaries of the science and the subsequent regulatory processes that followed to effect change (or not).[books.google.com]
  • Adobe Acrobat XI Pro was used to OCR the text and also for the merging and conversion to the final presentation PDF-format.[repository.up.ac.za]
  • Presently, many countries across the world have banned dieldrin’s use. However, the lethal effects of this substance have been linked to murders in and around the 21 st century.[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • Case presentation A 3 year old child was brought in to the emergency department (ED) because of a single, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure.[calpoison.org]
  • For example, the chemical of concern, dieldrin, presently shows high concentrations at interior sampling stations. At the arsenal fenceline, however, further sampling shows it reduced to background levels.[sierraclub.org]
Fishing
  • He added that once the pesticide had worked its way into watercourses, the chemical contaminated fish stocks, which in turn were eaten by the otters.[news.bbc.co.uk]
  • […] the poison. [2] Mercury was ingested through the consumption of homemade bread, meat and other animal products obtained from livestock given treated barley, vegetation grown from soil contaminated with mercury, game birds that had fed on the grain and fish[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Toxaphene is not very biodegradable (ie, slow biotransformation and degradation); it persists in the environment and accumulates in biological systems (eg, food chain of fish, poultry, cattle).[emedicine.medscape.com]
Anorexia
  • الصفحة 11 - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm) with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus, involuntary defecation. Increased sweating. Increased salivation.[books.google.com]
  • Other manifestations of chronic exposure are as follows: Anorexia Hepatotoxicity Renal toxicity CNS disturbances Skin irritation See Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis The history of exposure is the most important piece of information.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Physician
  • This reference will interest physicians involved in environmental medicine and occupational health, as well as graduate students and researchers in the fields of neurophysiology, pharmacology, and the toxicology of pesticides.[books.google.com]
  • College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, and Phi Beta Kappa Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • “According to physicians and other food safety experts, the mere presence of a chemical itself is not a human health hazard. It is the amount, or dose, that matters,” said Monsanto senior toxicologist Kimberly Hodge-Bell. Dr.[reset.me]
Pain
  • It explores the basic fundamentals of pharmacology, special topics such as pain control, fear and anxiety, and oral complications of cancer therapy, and most importantly, the actions of specific drug groups on the human body.[books.google.com]
  • […] hallucinations and perceptual disturbances Seizures Agitation, lethargy, or unconsciousness Other symptoms include the following: Pulmonary - Cough, shortness of breath Dermatologic - Skin rash Gastrointestinal - Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • She was minimally responsive to voice and withdrew to pain. Although she had deep respirations, the remainder of the physical examination was normal and her neurological examination nonfocal except for her post-ictal state.[calpoison.org]
Agent Orange
  • From Love Canal to Times Beach, from DDT to Agent Orange, acid rain, and global warming, from saccharin to asbestos, nuclear waste, and radon, Wildavsky shows how we can achieve an informed understanding of the contentious environmental issues that confront[books.google.com]
Vomiting
  • الصفحة 11 - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm) with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus, involuntary defecation. Increased sweating. Increased salivation.[books.google.com]
  • Chronic exposure to low and moderate levels of dieldrin can cause headaches, dizziness, vomiting, irritability and eventually can lead to spastic muscle movements.[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • In addition, nonspecific neurologic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness can also be seen. Myoclonus, increased deep tendon reflexes and tremors are also reported following toxic exposures.[calpoison.org]
  • , diarrhea, and abdominal pain Nervous system - Headache, dizziness, or paresthesias of the face, tongue, and extremities Ingestion produces the following manifestations: Nausea and vomiting Confusion, tremor, myoclonus, coma, and seizures Respiratory[emedicine.medscape.com]
Vomiting
  • الصفحة 11 - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm) with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus, involuntary defecation. Increased sweating. Increased salivation.[books.google.com]
  • Chronic exposure to low and moderate levels of dieldrin can cause headaches, dizziness, vomiting, irritability and eventually can lead to spastic muscle movements.[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • In addition, nonspecific neurologic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness can also be seen. Myoclonus, increased deep tendon reflexes and tremors are also reported following toxic exposures.[calpoison.org]
  • , diarrhea, and abdominal pain Nervous system - Headache, dizziness, or paresthesias of the face, tongue, and extremities Ingestion produces the following manifestations: Nausea and vomiting Confusion, tremor, myoclonus, coma, and seizures Respiratory[emedicine.medscape.com]
Nausea
  • الصفحة 11 - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm) with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus, involuntary defecation. Increased sweating. Increased salivation.[books.google.com]
  • Initial euphoria with auditory or visual hallucinations and perceptual disturbances Seizures Agitation, lethargy, or unconsciousness Other symptoms include the following: Pulmonary - Cough, shortness of breath Dermatologic - Skin rash Gastrointestinal - Nausea[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In addition, nonspecific neurologic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness can also be seen. Myoclonus, increased deep tendon reflexes and tremors are also reported following toxic exposures.[calpoison.org]
Nausea
  • الصفحة 11 - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm) with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus, involuntary defecation. Increased sweating. Increased salivation.[books.google.com]
  • Initial euphoria with auditory or visual hallucinations and perceptual disturbances Seizures Agitation, lethargy, or unconsciousness Other symptoms include the following: Pulmonary - Cough, shortness of breath Dermatologic - Skin rash Gastrointestinal - Nausea[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In addition, nonspecific neurologic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness can also be seen. Myoclonus, increased deep tendon reflexes and tremors are also reported following toxic exposures.[calpoison.org]
Diarrhea
  • الصفحة 11 - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm) with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus, involuntary defecation. Increased sweating. Increased salivation.[books.google.com]
  • […] auditory or visual hallucinations and perceptual disturbances Seizures Agitation, lethargy, or unconsciousness Other symptoms include the following: Pulmonary - Cough, shortness of breath Dermatologic - Skin rash Gastrointestinal - Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea[emedicine.medscape.com]
Muscle Twitch
Myopathy
  • The severity and widespread nature of the lesions in the skeletal muscles and myocardium of natural cases were reminiscent of white muscle disease and capture myopathy. Congestion, oedema and glial swelling of the brain were constant features.[repository.up.ac.za]
Increased Sweating
  • Increased sweating. Increased salivation. Increased lacrimination. ‏[books.google.com]
Increased Sweating
  • Increased sweating. Increased salivation. Increased lacrimination. ‏[books.google.com]
Suggestibility
  • الصفحة 36 - Enzyme studies with human and hen autopsy tissue suggest omethoate does not cause delayed neuropathy in man, Arch.Toxicol. ‏[books.google.com]
  • An 11-year study by the Environment Agency suggested that declining levels of certain chemicals had allowed the mammals to recover.[news.bbc.co.uk]
  • The recorded death toll was 459 people, but figures at least ten times greater have been suggested.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Evidence also suggests that pesticide poisoning – a heavy dose in a short amount of time – doubles the risk of depression.[scientificamerican.com]
Fear
  • It explores the basic fundamentals of pharmacology, special topics such as pain control, fear and anxiety, and oral complications of cancer therapy, and most importantly, the actions of specific drug groups on the human body.[books.google.com]
  • I have observed the escalating cancer, birth abnormalities and asthma/allergies in the area and I have come to fear this technological age we live in.[pesticides.australianmap.net]
  • Photo by Sabphoto. by Martha Rosenberg on April 14, 2015 Last year senior Monsanto scientist Dan Goldstein attempted to quell fears over the mega company’s chemical pesticide RoundUp poisoning people’s bodies over time.[reset.me]
Irritability
  • It also functions as a “spatial repellent,” keeping mosquitoes from entering areas where it has been sprayed, and as a “contact irritant,” making insects that come in contact with it so irritated they leave.[nytimes.com]
  • Chronic exposure to low and moderate levels of dieldrin can cause headaches, dizziness, vomiting, irritability and eventually can lead to spastic muscle movements.[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • Other manifestations of chronic exposure are as follows: Anorexia Hepatotoxicity Renal toxicity CNS disturbances Skin irritation See Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis The history of exposure is the most important piece of information.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Instead of epinephrine as first line therapy, beta-adrenergic blocking agents and magnesium are administered initially for organochlorine-induced ventricular dysrhythmias in order to diminish the effects of endogenous catecholamines on the highly irritable[calpoison.org]
Seizure
  • As with other toxin-mediated seizures, phenytoin is usually ineffective for organochlorine-induced seizures. It is important to monitor for and recognize the dysrhythmogenic effects of organochlorine agents.[calpoison.org]
  • Tracy Dicks, a vet at Fourways clinic where the baboons were treated, said she had established that dieldrin caused "massive brain seizures". Once it was in the system of an animal, there was nothing that could be done to reverse its lethal effects.[iol.co.za]
  • These changes can result in agitation, confusion, and seizures. Cardiac effects have been attributed to sensitization of the myocardium to circulating catecholamines.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Dizziness
  • Chronic exposure to low and moderate levels of dieldrin can cause headaches, dizziness, vomiting, irritability and eventually can lead to spastic muscle movements.[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • […] disturbances Seizures Agitation, lethargy, or unconsciousness Other symptoms include the following: Pulmonary - Cough, shortness of breath Dermatologic - Skin rash Gastrointestinal - Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain Nervous system - Headache, dizziness[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In addition, nonspecific neurologic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness can also be seen. Myoclonus, increased deep tendon reflexes and tremors are also reported following toxic exposures.[calpoison.org]
Headache
  • Chronic exposure to low and moderate levels of dieldrin can cause headaches, dizziness, vomiting, irritability and eventually can lead to spastic muscle movements.[jamesjmurray.blog]
  • […] or inhalation produces the following manifestations: Ear, nose, and throat irritation Blurred vision Cough Acute lung injury Dermatitis Long-term occupational exposure to organochlorine pesticides may result in various nonspecific symptoms, including headaches[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In addition, nonspecific neurologic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness can also be seen. Myoclonus, increased deep tendon reflexes and tremors are also reported following toxic exposures.[calpoison.org]
Tremor
  • Lindane, like other organochlorine pesticides, is excitatory to the brain and induces seizures, tremors and other stimulatory neurologic signs.[calpoison.org]
  • - Skin rash Gastrointestinal - Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain Nervous system - Headache, dizziness, or paresthesias of the face, tongue, and extremities Ingestion produces the following manifestations: Nausea and vomiting Confusion, tremor[emedicine.medscape.com]

Workup

  • […] prolongation, nonspecific ST-segment changes Gastrointestinal - Transaminitis and hyperbilirubinemia Hematologic - Leukocytosis and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) Renal - Acidemia, azotemia, creatinine elevation, hyperkalemia See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry, 6th Edition describes how to evaluate a patient’s health and optimize dental treatment by factoring in the drugs they take.[books.google.com]
  • This case exemplifies the factor of weight loss and speculates on possible treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All patients received periods of treatment interspersed with lay periods; continuous treatment was suggested in future cases.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Clay Clay treatments, taken internally or externally as baths or skin treatments, like the “living, swelling clays” calcium bentonite and montmorillonites, are used in detoxification regimes.[reset.me]
  • Treatment Close attention must be paid to the airway and respirations of any patients in whom organochlorine toxicity is suspected.[calpoison.org]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis in patients exposed to organochlorine compounds depends on the amount and type of exposure.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Where lindane is suspected as a toxin, serum concentrations can help to guide management and prognosis. A level of 0.02 to 0.20 mg/L is indicative of a toxic exposure with higher levels at greater risk for seizures.[calpoison.org]

Etiology

  • Autism: The Diagnosis, Treatment, & Etiology of the Undeniable Epidemic. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-7637-5280-4. Retrieved 24 July 2010. a b c d e f g h i Skerfving SB, Copplestone JF (1976).[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Highly toxic organochlorines include: Aldrin Dieldrin [12] Endrin [13] Endosulfan [14, 15] Moderately toxic organochlorines include: Chlordane DDT Heptachlor Kepone Lindane Mirex Toxaphene Epidemiology United States statistics Organochlorine pesticides[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology The historic legacy of organochlorine pesticides is both impressive and controversial.[calpoison.org]
  • The epidemiology of the Talagang outbreak suggested that a shipment of food (possibly sugar) was contaminated en route to the city 17. Some simple reported examples from throughout the world 18 show how vulnerable and at what riskwe are.[jpma.org.pk]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Organochlorines are well absorbed orally and by inhalation. Transdermal absorption is variable.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology The major acute effect of the organochlorine agents is central nervous system stimulation. Several mechanisms seem to contribute to this effect.[calpoison.org]

Prevention

  • الصفحة 1 - Pesticide means any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering[books.google.com]
  • It is estimated for example, that DDT saved 50 million lives from 1940 to 1953 and prevented an additional 1 billion cases of human infectious disease.[calpoison.org]
  • Perhaps the most overarching way to prevent the build-up of toxins is to pursue a detoxified lifestyle — that is according to Dr.[reset.me]
  • Reports after the disaster recommended tighter regulation, better labelling and handling of mercury-treated grain, and wider involvement of the World Health Organization in monitoring and preventing poisoning incidents.[en.wikipedia.org]

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