Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is a disorder in which additional bone growth and ossification of ligaments and tendons occur, most commonly in the thoracal spine. It primarily develops in older adults, and it is asymptomatic in the majority of individuals. Symptoms, when present, include pain and stiffness of the affected area, and radiological findings confirm large calcifications. Treatment is indicated in symptomatic patients, and in those with respiratory or gastrointestinal compromise.
Despite the fact that many patients with DISH are asymptomatic, numerous symptoms have been reported, and they depend on the localization of skeletal changes. In the case involvement of the thoracal spine, which is the most common localization, back and neck pain, limited range of motion, stiffness, and increased frequency of spinal fractures have all been documented , while dysphagia is the principal symptom in cervical spine involvement. Since other parts of the skeletal system may be affected, polyarticular pain, tendinitis, and in severe cases, spinal compression and numbness in lower extremities may be observed . The differential diagnosis of DISH is broad and includes numerous systemic diseases, which is why a thorough diagnostic workup is necessary to exclude other diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis, different spondyloarthropathies, and spondylosis deformans.
Entire Body System
Minimizing space after eliminating bony lesions conceivably helps minimize local inflammation in Forestier disease. [jstage.jst.go.jp]
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) can be helpful in both relieving pain and inflammation of DISH. DISH most commonly affects the elderly (especially 6th to 7th decades). Its estimated frequency in the elderly is at ~10%. [omicsonline.org]
This is a cheap and effective way to reduce chronic inflammation and in the long term is better than anti-inflammatories and cortisol injections. [yinyoga.com]
But Fraenkel showed as early as 1903 that this syndrome is produced by, or associated with, an ankylosing inflammation of the apophyseal joints, spondylarthritis ankylopoietica, which is not necessarily accompanied by ossification of ligaments (7). [doi.org]
Scientifically rigorous reptile and amphibian osseous pathology: Lessons for forensic herpetology from comparative and paleo-pathology. Applied Herpetology. 2008. 10:39-116. Rothschild BM. [emedicine.medscape.com]
We report a case of 73-year-old man with massive hyperostosis of the cervical spine associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), resulting in dysphagia, hoarseness and acute respiratory insufficiency. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
This could be result of hoarseness, stridor, laryngeal stenosis and obstruction. [ 3 ] Sometimes vocal fold paralysis may result from injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. [ 3 ] Investigations X-rays: Characteristic appearance of 'wax dripping from [patient.info]
* Difficulty swallowing or a hoarse voice : You may experience these if you have DISH in your neck. Risk factors include: *Sex : Men are more likely to develop DISH. [ipcphysicaltherapy.com]
The medical literature concerning this unusual cause of dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia is reviewed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
RESULTS: A 79 year old male was seen in Neurology consultation for progressive difficulty swallowing, aspiration pneumonia and 50 pound weight loss over the past 3 years. He had been seen by gastroenterology, otolaryngology and psychiatry. [neurology.org]
Complications such as intubation difficulties, dysphonia, aspiration pneumonia, stridor or dyspnea are extremely rare but can be life threatening. [doi.org]
- Inspiratory Stridor
Case Report An 82-year-old man presented in our emergency department with dyspnea, inspiratory stridor and fever. He was treated without success for a tracheo-bronchitis for about two weeks in the department of internal medicine. [doi.org]
Diabetes and hypertension were more prevalent in patients with DISH than in those without. The severity of radiographic damage to peripheral joints was also greater in patients with DISH. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Associated comorbidities include obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hyperuricaemia. [ 1 ] Management [ 5 ] Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed for symptomatic relief. [patient.info]
2017.026 The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, February 2017, Vol. 117, 138. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2017.026 Keywords: diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, dysphagia, hyperostosis A 74-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension [jaoa.org]
- Heart Disease
METHODS: Among the 521 consecutive patients admitted to the heart diseases rehabilitation program in our Rehabilitative Cardiology Unit, only those (n = 436) with recent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), a heart valve replacement (HVR), or congestive [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
２０点未満は痴呆 HHD Hypertensive Heart Disease 高血圧性心臓病 HL HyperLipidemia 高脂血症 。こういう略は好ましくありませんが HT HyperTension 高血圧症 IDA Iron Deficiency Anemia 鉄欠乏性貧血 IDDM Insulin Dependent DM インスリン依存型糖尿病 IFN Interferron インターフェロン IHD Iscｈemic Heart Disease 虚血性心臓病。 [marimo.or.jp]
Since it is believed that DISH is related to several metabolic diseases (eg, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperuricemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease…) and risk factors, one will also have to intervene on these disorders. [physio-pedia.com]
Diabetes and other conditions - People with diabetes or other conditions that raise insulin levels in your body, including hyperinsulinemia, prediabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and obesity, may increase your risk of developing DISH. [jointhealth.org]
Resection of the large osteophyte was performed via a typical ventral-cervical approach with horizontal skin incision. [link.springer.com]
The authors here described a very rare case of hypopharyngeal airway compression secondary to cervical osteophytes in a patient with coincidence of Eagle syndrome and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Back Pain
We report on a 69-year-old male who had severe back pain due to spontaneous symptomatic pseudoarthrosis at the T11-T12 intervertebral space with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Outcomes included visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, stiffness, and fatigue, 13 spinal measurements, the neck pain and disability scale, the Quebec back pain disability scale, the Bath Spondylitis Functional Index, and the MACTAR patient preference [doi.org]
- Hip Pain
Also, he had mild bilateral hip pain [numeric rating scale (NRS): 2]. Hip joint range of motion was 60.3% of normal. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Spine Stiffness
However, spine stiffness and decreased mobility are referred to as possible symptoms. The etiology of DISH is still unknown. [radiopaedia.org]
- Spine Pain
Local heat can be used to reduce pain temporary  . To treat the painful disorders of the spine (or extremity) joints, several therapeutic modalities can be used. [physio-pedia.com]
The etiology of the condition is unknown, as the name suggests (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), although some correlations with diabetes mellitus, obesity, and age have been noted. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abstract The extraspinal manifestations of Forestier s disease are described in 21 consecutive cases; diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is suggested as a more appropriate description of this ossifying diathesis. [doi.org]
In the first patient, dysphagia resolved within 3 months of surgery, while in the second individual, myelopathy improved to Nurick Grade I (mild myelopathy) within 6 months postoperatively. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cervical myelopathy caused by soft-tissue mass in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, Eur Spine J. 17 (Suppl 2), S243-S247, DOI: 10.1007/s00586-007-0508-6 9. [degruyter.com]
- Neck Stiffness
In this report, we document a case of bilateral Eagle syndrome and advanced DISH in the cervical spine of an 80-year-old man who presented with severe neck stiffness and intermittent asphyxia. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The pain was worse in the morning and associated with progressively worsening early morning stiffness. He had noted neck stiffness with forward stooping and some mild odynophagia to solid foods. [ajol.info]
Cardinal Findings: Patients are usually asymptomatic but may complain of thoracolumbar or neck stiffness. Large osteophytes of the cervical spine may cause dysphagia in as many as 25% of patients. Enthesopathy is common. [rheumaknowledgy.com]
The diagnosis of DISH is performed according to specific diagnostic criteria supported by various imaging studies. Resnick and Niwayama proposed criteria that include the following :
- Calcification and ossification of ventrolateral aspects of at least four contiguous vertebrae, with or without excrescences at the vertebral disc-body junctions.
- Preservation of disc height and integrity in areas where DISH developed, and absence of radiological findings that may indicate degenerative disease.
- The absence of apophyseal joint, bony ankylosis, and absence of erosion and sclerosis of the sacroiliac joint.
For patients to be evaluated using this criterion, imaging studies are imperative. Usually, plain radiography can show abnormal bone formation and multiple large calcifications along the vertebral column, particularly if the changes occur in the thoracal spine, and almost all patients have involvement of the thoracic vertebrae. Extraspinal calcifications may be observed in numerous joints, including the calcaneus, olecranon, metacarpal and phalangeal joints of the hand, in which capsular hyperostosis is observed in more than 10% of patients .
Despite the fact that plain radiography is effective in recognizing the changes in DISH, CT and MRI studies are more effective in determining the magnitude of the lesions. More importantly, they are helpful in assessing complications and associated findings, such as compression of the spinal cord, as well as tracheal and esophageal obstruction. These findings can be of great value in determining whether surgical therapy should be instated in these patients.
Treatment of DISH is targeted at alleviating symptoms that occur as a result of the disease, and treatment is often unnecessary in asymptomatic patients. Depending on which part of the skeletal system is involved and the severity of complaints, treatment involves rehabilitation, lifestyle changes, pain alleviation with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and in severe cases, surgery.
For patients with little or no complaints, pain can be managed with NSAIDs, including paracetamol and ibuprofen (unless these patients present with contraindications, such as peptic ulcer disease), while regular exercise and proper dietary habits have been established to be important in these patients.
For patients with dysphagia, and mechanical obstruction of respiratory and gastrointestinal passages, initial tracheostomy and subsequent osteophysectomy is indicated, and shows good results .
Because DISH uncommonly produces symptoms, the long-term prognosis is generally good. In rare cases, however, cervical spine involvement may lead to significant complications, which necessitate surgical treatment. For these reasons, a prompt workup is necessary for patients who are symptomatic, but with proper therapy, the outcomes are very good. The disease itself does not pose a significant risk to the patient and shows a slow progression. In fact, several studies established a less frequent presence of back pain and similar symptoms in patients with DISH compared to control subjects.
The cause and pathogenesis of DISH remain unknown. However, several factors, including mechanical, genetic and environmental have been determined to play a role in the etiology of this disorder . Aortic pulsations and its pressure on the adjacent skeletal structures, HLA mutations, exposure to fluoride, use of isotretinoin and other derivatives of vitamin A, and degenerative changes have all been hypothesized to contribute to this disease, but no solid conclusions have been made yet. Metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and acromegaly, and other diseases in which cartilage development is impaired, have also been investigated as potential factors in the development of DISH.
Certain studies estimated that prevalence rates for DISH are approximately 19% for men and 4% for women older than 50 years, with small variations  . Prevalence rates increase as the age increases, and certain studies have determined that DISH is present in more than 30% of males older than 65 years, and more than 50% of males older than 80 years . These studies have also identified that blood pressure and increased body mass index (BMI) positively correlated with the development of this disorder. DISH very rarely occurs in adults under 40 years of age, while ethnic predilection has not been documented yet.
The hallmark of DISH is ossification of entheses - bony attachments of ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules, and development of osteophytes. As a result of these changes, numerous pathological features are observed, including focal and diffuse calcifications, periosteal bone formation on the surface of vertebral bodies, paraspinal connective tissue fibrosis, and many other . When these changes occur in the cervical spine, development of large osteophytes may lead to direct compression of the esophagus, resulting in dysphagia, while tracheal displacement and airway compromise may also occur . Spinal cord compression open link and increased risk of fractures are also established in these patients because of the changes that occur in patients with DISH.
It is important to distinguish DISH from other skeletal diseases of similar pathogenesis, such as ankylosing spondylitis since this disorder produces non-inflammatory changes in the skeletal system.
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a generalized skeletal disease which is characterized by ossification of bony entheses, including tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules, with resultant development of osteophytes . Since its initial description in the 1950s , numerous advances have been made in terms of epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment, but the cause of DISH remains unknown. It is established that this disease is more present in men than women and that it is most commonly diagnosed in males older than 50 years. The thoracal spine and the anterior longitudinal ligament is described as the most common location of this disease. Cervical spine, the pelvis, calcaneum and ulnar olecranon are also sites where this disorder is reported . Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, patients may have significant complaints, depending on the site of ossification. Thoracal spine involvement is usually accompanied with back pain and stiffness, and if the cervical spine is affected, hyperostosis may lead to dysphagia and breathing difficulties, as a result of mechanical obstruction of the trachea and the esophagus. Other symptoms include localized pain and development of fractures. The diagnosis is made by imaging studies, which reveal large calcifications and computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are superior to plain X-rays in diagnosing DISH and other associated findings. Diagnostic criteria include ossification of at least 4 contiguous vertebrae, preservation of the intervertebral disc space and its height, and absence of apophyseal joints, ankylosis, erosion or other sacroiliac inflammatory changes. Treatment is often delayed, as many patients do not report symptoms. Physical therapy is an important part of the long-term management of patients who report pain and reduced motion, and lifestyle, as well as dietary habit changes, are also indicated. Appropriate therapeutic and surgical procedures are necessary for patients with the compromise of the airway and the esophagus, including tracheostomy and osteophysectomy, to reestablish safe passage of air and food content.
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disease in which the sites where tendons and ligaments attach to the bone tend to transform into bone tissue and result in the extensive bone growth and calcifications. It is still unknown why this disease occurs, and it is thought that mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors all play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is established that the risk factor for DISH is male gender and increased age, because the rates of DISH rise as the age increases, and certain studies indicate that more than 30% of males over 65 years have this disease. This disease is very rarely seen before 40 years of age. Additionally, it was established that blood pressure and obesity correlate with this disease, which provides evidence that dietary and lifestyle habits are important in preventing this disorder. DISH can occur at any site in the body. The most common location where DISH develops is the spine, but other sites are reported as well, including the hips, elbows, the patella, and the bones of the hands and feet. The majority of individuals with DISH are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present, they include pain, back stiffness, and limited range of motion. When DISH develops in the vertebrae of the neck, direct compression of the airways and gastrointestinal tract may occur, which can lead to symptoms of painful and difficult swallowing, voice changes, and breathing difficulties. The diagnosis of DISH is made by performing a plain X-ray, which can clearly show the presence of calcifications, and virtually all patients have these calcifications in the spine. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used in assessing potential complications, including compression of the airways, and can detect other associated findings, such as spinal cord compression, which occurs in rare cases. Treatment involves symptomatic therapy, including pain relief, rehabilitation, and if necessary, surgical treatment to correct the changes that occurred as a result of this disease. The prognosis is generally good, as the disease does not pose a threat to the patient, but in the case of the airway compromise, prompt surgical therapy is vital in preventing the occurrence of other complications. Because this disease is correlated with increased blood pressure and obesity, proper dietary habits and regular physical exercise have been implicated as measures of prevention against DISH.
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